119 terms

APUSH ch 24-27

Quota system
a system that was passed in 1921 that determined how many immigrants from a specific country could enter the US
DW Griffith
made the 12 reel Birth of a Nation
Jim Thorpe
incredible athlete; gold medalist, baseball, and founder of NFL
Harold "Red" Grange
averaged over 10 yards a carry in his college career
Jack Dempsey
prize fighter; knocked out a succession of fighters
"Gentlemen Gene" Tunney
defeated Jack Dempsey
William "Big Bill" Tiden
dominated Tennis, winning every national singles title from 1920 to 1925
Babe Ruth
Dominated baseball; changed it from a game of pitchers and low scores to one where hitting was admired
John T. Scopes
taught Darwinism after it had been banned in TN. William Jennings Bryan prosecuted him; Clarence Darrow defended him
William J. Simmons
found of the new Ku Klux Klan
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti
killed two men in the robbery of a shoe factory and were convicted of murder; Italian immigrants that claimed they did not receive a fair trail
Henry James
coined the term "lost generation"
F. Scott Fitzgerald
wrote The Great Gatsby
Ernest Hemingway
one of the most influential writers of the era; instant success and classic
W.E.B. DuBois
increased commitment to black nationalism
Marcus Garvey
promoted black separatism; his Universal Negro Improvement Association attracted followers for hos back to Africa movement
Henry Ford
responsible for "getting prices down to buying power" assembly line
Wilbur and Orville Wright
first flew at Kitty Hawk, NC in December 1903
Malcolm and Haimes Lockhead
built one of the earliest commercial planes in 1913
William E. Boeing
began flying passengers and mail between San Francisco and Chicago in July 1927
Charles Lindbergh
flew non stop from NYC to Paris in 33 hours in May 1927
Warren G. Harding
won the 1920 Presidential election; excellent cabinet but unfortunately gave lesser offices to the "Ohio Gang"
Andrew Mellon
Sec. of Treasury that dominated the administration's domestic policy
Charles Forbes
head of Veterans' Bureau; illegally took millions of dollars appropriated for the construction of hospitals
Albert B. Fall
Sec. of the Interior; involved in Teapot Dome; eventually jailed for a year and fined
Edwin Denby
Sec. of the Navy; involved in Teapot Dome
Edward Dohney
head of Pan-American Petroleum Company; got Elk Hills in scandal
Harry F. Sinclair
head of Mammoth Oil Company; got Teapot Dome; eventually sent to jail for 9 months
Calvin Coolidge
Harding's VP; becomes President after untimely death of Harding; won his own term in 1924
Washington Naval Conference
November 1921; conference in Washington that drafted three major treaties
Five-Power Treaty
stop building battleships for 10 years; reduce their fleets of capital ships to a fixed rate; US, GB, FR, JA, and IT
Four-Power Treaty
committed these nations to respect one another's interests in the islands of the Pacific and to confer in the event that any other country launched an attack in the area; US, GB, JA, FR
Nine Power Treaty
agreed to respect China's independence and maintain the Open Door policy
National Origins Act of 1924
stopped Japanese from immigrating to the US
Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)
proposed by French minister saying the the US and France would not go to war with each other; other countries included as well
Clark Memorandum (1930)
disassociated the right of intervention in Latin America from the Roosevelt Corollary
Stimson Doctrine
announced that the US would never recognize the legality of seizures made in violation of the treaties
Dawes Plan (1924)
provided Germany with a $200 million loan designed to stabilize its currency; everyone defaulted in the great depression
Black Tuesday
October 29, 1929; market hit rock bottom
Reconstruction Finance Corporation (1932)
created to lend money to banks, railroad, and insurance companies
Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930)
raised duties on most manufactured goods to prohibit levels; made it impossible for European nations to earn money needed to make loan payments
Dust Bowl
in 1930 TX, NM, OK suffered a terrible drought; dust everywhere
Emergency Banking Relief Act (EBRA)
only financially sound banks could operate
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
an insurance on bank deposits
Federal Security Act
no manipulating the stocks
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
regulated stock market and restricted margin buying
Fireside Chats
FDR got on the radio and explained what the government was doing
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Sent 250,000 young men (18-25) to work camps to perform reforestation and conservation tasks. Removed a surplus of workers from cities, provided healthy conditions for boys, and provided money for families.
Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA)
distributed millions of dollars of direct aid to unemployed workers
Public Works Administration (PWA)
received $3.3 billion appropriation from congress for public works projects
Civil Works Administration (CWA)
Provided public works jobs at $15/week to four million workers in 1934
National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
created to enforce codes of fair competition, minimum wages, and to permit collective bargaining of workers; later declared unconstitutional
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
federal government built a series of dams to prevent flooding and sell electricity. First public competition with private power industries
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
protect farmers from price drops by providing crop subsidies to reduce production, educational programs to teach methods of preventing soil erosion
Court Reform Bill
President appoints supreme court justices that would be on his side (Court Packing Bill doesn't happen); gets what he wants when old guys retire
Charles Coughlin
an anti-Semitic priest who wanted the nationalization of banks and a minimum income for every US worker
Francis Townsend
wanted to help the elderly and wanted a pension plan
Huey Long
Louisiana governor who wanted the wealthy to share 80%-90% of their wealth (communism!)
Carl Weiss
assassinates Huey Long
Eleanor Roosevelt
transforms the role of first lady; she travels a lot because FDR can't; pushes for help for the poor
2nd AAA
gave money to farmers that promised to cut back on production in exchange for government compensation
The Resettlement Administration (RA)
tenant farmers
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
employed 8.5 million workers in construction and other jobs, but more importantly provided work in arts, theater, and literary projects
National Youth Administration (NYA)
provided part-time jobs to students
Wagner Act
big support for unions; making sure they are fair and just
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
worked with unfair business practices, making sure labor relations were good
Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)
minimum wages, maximum hours
Public Steel Strike
10 people killed; very violent
Social Security Act
Anyone over 65 was going to get a pension, unemployment insurance, and aid to disabled; this wasn't supposed to be the monster that it is today
Rural Electrification Act (REA)
an out-branching of the TVA to bring electricity to other places
Frances Perkins
first women cabinet member; Sec. of Labor
Mary McLeod Bethune
head of the division of Negro Affairs in the NYA
Marian Anderson
Eleanor left the Daughters of the Revolution when they wouldn't let her sing so she did on the Lincoln memorial
John Steinbeck
wrote the Grapes of Wrath (1939)
Brain Trust
group of experts that did not work in the government
Eleanor Roosevelt and Molly Dewson
head of the Women's Division of the Democratic National Committee
James Collier
commissioner of Indian Affairs
Charles Forman
appointed to "keep government honest when it came to race""
Indian Reorganization Act (1934)
did way with the Dawes System; enabled Indians to establish tribal governments with powers like those of cities; encouraged Indians to return individually owned lands to tribal control
"Night of the Broken Glass" November 10,1938; Hitler begins his extermination campaign against the Jews
creating the perfect race
Haile Sallassie
Emperor of Ethiopia
The Spanish Civil War
a group of Fascists trying to overthrow a Republican government
Munich Conference
Germany, GB, FR; give Hitler the Sudentenland to appease him
Nonaggression Pact (August 1939)
USSR and Germany promise not to attack each other
Official Start of WWII
September 1, 1939; Hitler invades Poland
Lend-Lease Act (March 1941)
allows the US to sell or lend war materials to "any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the US"
The Atlantic Charter
a document saying that these two countries did not agree with Germany and Italy; They were pushing for self-determining and freedom of the seas
USS Rueben James
sunk by German U-boats; over 100 Americans killed
Neutrality Act (1939)
FDR could sent weapons to countries at war, but they could not be sent on an American ship
Stimson Doctrine (1931)
stated that the US would not recognize any areas that Japan had taken over as Japanese territory
Oil Embargo
US put on Japan in July 1941 after Japan invaded French Indochina
Hideki Tojo
Japan's War Minister
Pearl Harbor
December 7, 1941; Japan's surprise attack at US naval base at Pearl Harbor
Germany, Italy, Japan
Supply Priorities and Allocation Board
oversaw the use of scare materials and resources vital to war
Office of Price Administration
imposed price controls check inflation
National War Labor Board
gave huge tax credits for new plants and awarded lucrative contracts for urgently needed goods
Office of War INfomation
engaged the press to "sell the war" to the American public
Office of Scientific Research and Development
mobilizing scientific research for the war effort; Manhattan Project
War Bonds
provided a crucial source of revenue for the war effort
William Baldwin
first African American to be recruited for the war in the Marines
Tuskegee Airmen
America's first black military airmen
Executive Order 9066
authorized the mas incarceration of over 110,000 Japanese Americans during WWII
June 6, 1944; invaded the Nazi occupied France at the beaches of Normandy
Yalta Conference
Churchill, FDR, Stalin met to discuss the future of Europe after the war
Marshal Wilhelm Keitel
surrenders at Soviet Headquarters in Berlin on May 9, 1945
Potsdam (July 1945)
Decide how to deal with Germany and Japan's war criminals and how to divide Germany
Bataan Death March
how Japanese treated POWs
Joseph Rochefort
Naval Intelligence Officer who led the team that broke the Japanese military code "purple"
first atomic bomb dropped in the desert
Robert Oppenheimer
head of the Manhattan Project
Little Boy
atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945
Fat Man
atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945; forces the Japanese to surrender
backup plan similar to DDay if the Japanese did not surrender
VJ Day
August 14, 1945
VE Day
May 9, 1945
Nuremburg Trials
prosecuting war criminals in a fair court system; lasted for years