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Quota system

a system that was passed in 1921 that determined how many immigrants from a specific country could enter the US

DW Griffith

made the 12 reel Birth of a Nation

Jim Thorpe

incredible athlete; gold medalist, baseball, and founder of NFL

Harold "Red" Grange

averaged over 10 yards a carry in his college career

Jack Dempsey

prize fighter; knocked out a succession of fighters

"Gentlemen Gene" Tunney

defeated Jack Dempsey

William "Big Bill" Tiden

dominated Tennis, winning every national singles title from 1920 to 1925

Babe Ruth

Dominated baseball; changed it from a game of pitchers and low scores to one where hitting was admired

John T. Scopes

taught Darwinism after it had been banned in TN. William Jennings Bryan prosecuted him; Clarence Darrow defended him

William J. Simmons

found of the new Ku Klux Klan

Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti

killed two men in the robbery of a shoe factory and were convicted of murder; Italian immigrants that claimed they did not receive a fair trail

Henry James

coined the term "lost generation"

F. Scott Fitzgerald

wrote The Great Gatsby

Ernest Hemingway

one of the most influential writers of the era; instant success and classic

W.E.B. DuBois

increased commitment to black nationalism

Marcus Garvey

promoted black separatism; his Universal Negro Improvement Association attracted followers for hos back to Africa movement

Henry Ford

responsible for "getting prices down to buying power" assembly line

Wilbur and Orville Wright

first flew at Kitty Hawk, NC in December 1903

Malcolm and Haimes Lockhead

built one of the earliest commercial planes in 1913

William E. Boeing

began flying passengers and mail between San Francisco and Chicago in July 1927

Charles Lindbergh

flew non stop from NYC to Paris in 33 hours in May 1927

Warren G. Harding

won the 1920 Presidential election; excellent cabinet but unfortunately gave lesser offices to the "Ohio Gang"

Andrew Mellon

Sec. of Treasury that dominated the administration's domestic policy

Charles Forbes

head of Veterans' Bureau; illegally took millions of dollars appropriated for the construction of hospitals

Albert B. Fall

Sec. of the Interior; involved in Teapot Dome; eventually jailed for a year and fined

Edwin Denby

Sec. of the Navy; involved in Teapot Dome

Edward Dohney

head of Pan-American Petroleum Company; got Elk Hills in scandal

Harry F. Sinclair

head of Mammoth Oil Company; got Teapot Dome; eventually sent to jail for 9 months

Calvin Coolidge

Harding's VP; becomes President after untimely death of Harding; won his own term in 1924

Washington Naval Conference

November 1921; conference in Washington that drafted three major treaties

Five-Power Treaty

stop building battleships for 10 years; reduce their fleets of capital ships to a fixed rate; US, GB, FR, JA, and IT

Four-Power Treaty

committed these nations to respect one another's interests in the islands of the Pacific and to confer in the event that any other country launched an attack in the area; US, GB, JA, FR

Nine Power Treaty

agreed to respect China's independence and maintain the Open Door policy

National Origins Act of 1924

stopped Japanese from immigrating to the US

Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)

proposed by French minister saying the the US and France would not go to war with each other; other countries included as well

Clark Memorandum (1930)

disassociated the right of intervention in Latin America from the Roosevelt Corollary

Stimson Doctrine

announced that the US would never recognize the legality of seizures made in violation of the treaties

Dawes Plan (1924)

provided Germany with a $200 million loan designed to stabilize its currency; everyone defaulted in the great depression

Black Tuesday

October 29, 1929; market hit rock bottom

Reconstruction Finance Corporation (1932)

created to lend money to banks, railroad, and insurance companies

Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930)

raised duties on most manufactured goods to prohibit levels; made it impossible for European nations to earn money needed to make loan payments

Dust Bowl

in 1930 TX, NM, OK suffered a terrible drought; dust everywhere

Emergency Banking Relief Act (EBRA)

only financially sound banks could operate

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

an insurance on bank deposits

Federal Security Act

no manipulating the stocks

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

regulated stock market and restricted margin buying

Fireside Chats

FDR got on the radio and explained what the government was doing

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

Sent 250,000 young men (18-25) to work camps to perform reforestation and conservation tasks. Removed a surplus of workers from cities, provided healthy conditions for boys, and provided money for families.

Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA)

distributed millions of dollars of direct aid to unemployed workers

Public Works Administration (PWA)

received $3.3 billion appropriation from congress for public works projects

Civil Works Administration (CWA)

Provided public works jobs at $15/week to four million workers in 1934

National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)

created to enforce codes of fair competition, minimum wages, and to permit collective bargaining of workers; later declared unconstitutional

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

federal government built a series of dams to prevent flooding and sell electricity. First public competition with private power industries

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)

protect farmers from price drops by providing crop subsidies to reduce production, educational programs to teach methods of preventing soil erosion

Court Reform Bill

President appoints supreme court justices that would be on his side (Court Packing Bill doesn't happen); gets what he wants when old guys retire

Charles Coughlin

an anti-Semitic priest who wanted the nationalization of banks and a minimum income for every US worker

Francis Townsend

wanted to help the elderly and wanted a pension plan

Huey Long

Louisiana governor who wanted the wealthy to share 80%-90% of their wealth (communism!)

Carl Weiss

assassinates Huey Long

Eleanor Roosevelt

transforms the role of first lady; she travels a lot because FDR can't; pushes for help for the poor

2nd AAA

gave money to farmers that promised to cut back on production in exchange for government compensation

The Resettlement Administration (RA)

tenant farmers

Works Progress Administration (WPA)

employed 8.5 million workers in construction and other jobs, but more importantly provided work in arts, theater, and literary projects

National Youth Administration (NYA)

provided part-time jobs to students

Wagner Act

big support for unions; making sure they are fair and just

National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)

worked with unfair business practices, making sure labor relations were good

Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)

minimum wages, maximum hours

Public Steel Strike

10 people killed; very violent

Social Security Act

Anyone over 65 was going to get a pension, unemployment insurance, and aid to disabled; this wasn't supposed to be the monster that it is today

Rural Electrification Act (REA)

an out-branching of the TVA to bring electricity to other places

Frances Perkins

first women cabinet member; Sec. of Labor

Mary McLeod Bethune

head of the division of Negro Affairs in the NYA

Marian Anderson

Eleanor left the Daughters of the Revolution when they wouldn't let her sing so she did on the Lincoln memorial

John Steinbeck

wrote the Grapes of Wrath (1939)

Brain Trust

group of experts that did not work in the government

Eleanor Roosevelt and Molly Dewson

head of the Women's Division of the Democratic National Committee

James Collier

commissioner of Indian Affairs

Charles Forman

appointed to "keep government honest when it came to race""

Indian Reorganization Act (1934)

did way with the Dawes System; enabled Indians to establish tribal governments with powers like those of cities; encouraged Indians to return individually owned lands to tribal control


"Night of the Broken Glass" November 10,1938; Hitler begins his extermination campaign against the Jews


creating the perfect race

Haile Sallassie

Emperor of Ethiopia

The Spanish Civil War

a group of Fascists trying to overthrow a Republican government

Munich Conference

Germany, GB, FR; give Hitler the Sudentenland to appease him

Nonaggression Pact (August 1939)

USSR and Germany promise not to attack each other

Official Start of WWII

September 1, 1939; Hitler invades Poland

Lend-Lease Act (March 1941)

allows the US to sell or lend war materials to "any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the US"

The Atlantic Charter

a document saying that these two countries did not agree with Germany and Italy; They were pushing for self-determining and freedom of the seas

USS Rueben James

sunk by German U-boats; over 100 Americans killed

Neutrality Act (1939)

FDR could sent weapons to countries at war, but they could not be sent on an American ship

Stimson Doctrine (1931)

stated that the US would not recognize any areas that Japan had taken over as Japanese territory

Oil Embargo

US put on Japan in July 1941 after Japan invaded French Indochina

Hideki Tojo

Japan's War Minister

Pearl Harbor

December 7, 1941; Japan's surprise attack at US naval base at Pearl Harbor




Germany, Italy, Japan

Supply Priorities and Allocation Board

oversaw the use of scare materials and resources vital to war

Office of Price Administration

imposed price controls check inflation

National War Labor Board

gave huge tax credits for new plants and awarded lucrative contracts for urgently needed goods

Office of War INfomation

engaged the press to "sell the war" to the American public

Office of Scientific Research and Development

mobilizing scientific research for the war effort; Manhattan Project

War Bonds

provided a crucial source of revenue for the war effort

William Baldwin

first African American to be recruited for the war in the Marines

Tuskegee Airmen

America's first black military airmen

Executive Order 9066

authorized the mas incarceration of over 110,000 Japanese Americans during WWII


June 6, 1944; invaded the Nazi occupied France at the beaches of Normandy

Yalta Conference

Churchill, FDR, Stalin met to discuss the future of Europe after the war

Marshal Wilhelm Keitel

surrenders at Soviet Headquarters in Berlin on May 9, 1945

Potsdam (July 1945)

Decide how to deal with Germany and Japan's war criminals and how to divide Germany

Bataan Death March

how Japanese treated POWs

Joseph Rochefort

Naval Intelligence Officer who led the team that broke the Japanese military code "purple"


first atomic bomb dropped in the desert

Robert Oppenheimer

head of the Manhattan Project

Little Boy

atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945

Fat Man

atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945; forces the Japanese to surrender


backup plan similar to DDay if the Japanese did not surrender

VJ Day

August 14, 1945

VE Day

May 9, 1945

Nuremburg Trials

prosecuting war criminals in a fair court system; lasted for years

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