Maternal child Ch. 23

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An infant boy was born just a few minutes ago. The nurse is conducting the initial assessment. Part of the
assessment includes the Apgar score. The Apgar assessment is performed:
a. Only if the newborn is in obvious distress.
b. Once by the obstetrician, just after the birth.
c. At least twice, 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth.
d. Every 15 minutes during the newborns first hour after birth
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An infant boy was born just a few minutes ago. The nurse is conducting the initial assessment. Part of the
assessment includes the Apgar score. The Apgar assessment is performed:
a. Only if the newborn is in obvious distress.
b. Once by the obstetrician, just after the birth.
c. At least twice, 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth.
d. Every 15 minutes during the newborns first hour after birth
A new father wants to know what medication was put into his infants eyes and why it is needed. The nurse
explains to the father that the purpose of the Ilotycin ophthalmic ointment is to:
a. Destroy an infectious exudate caused by Staphylococcus that could make the infant blind.
b. Prevent gonorrheal and chlamydial infection of the infants eyes potentially acquired from the birth
c. Prevent potentially harmful exudate from invading the tear ducts of the infants eyes, leading to dry
d. Prevent the infants eyelids from sticking together and help the infant see
The purpose of the Ilotycin ophthalmic ointment is to prevent gonorrheal and chlamydial infection of the
infants eyes potentially acquired from the birth canal. Prophylactic ophthalmic ointment is instilled in the eyes
of all neonates to prevent gonorrheal or chlamydial infection. Prophylactic ophthalmic ointment is not instilled
to prevent dry eyes. Prophylactic ophthalmic ointment has no bearing on vision other than to protect against
infection that may lead to vision problems
A 3.8-kg infant was delivered vaginally at 39 weeks after a 30-minute second stage. There was a nuchal
cord. After birth the infant is noted to have petechiae over the face and upper back. Information given to the
infants parents should be based on the knowledge that petechiae:
a. Are benign if they disappear within 48 hours of birth.
b. Result from increased blood volume.
c. Should always be further investigated.
d. Usually occur with forceps delivery
Petechiae, or pinpoint hemorrhagic areas, acquired during birth may extend over the upper portion of the trunk
and face. These lesions are benign if they disappear within 2 days of birth and no new lesions appear. Petechiae may result from decreased platelet formation. In this situation the presence of petechiae is most
likely a soft-tissue injury resulting from the nuchal cord at birth. Unless they do not dissipate in 2 days, there is
no reason to alarm the family. Petechiae usually occur with a breech presentation vaginal birth.
A newborn is jaundiced and receiving phototherapy via ultraviolet bank lights. An appropriate nursing
intervention when caring for an infant with hyperbilirubinemia and receiving phototherapy by this method
would be to:
a. Apply an oil-based lotion to the newborns skin to prevent dying and cracking.
b. Limit the newborns intake of milk to prevent nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
c. Place eye shields over the newborns closed eyes.
d. Change the newborns position every 4 hours.
The infants eyes must be protected by an opaque mask to prevent overexposure to the light. Eye shields should
cover the eyes completely but not occlude the nares. Lotions and ointments should not be applied to the infant
because they absorb heat, and this can cause burns. The lights increase insensible water loss, placing the infant
at risk for fluid loss and dehydration. Therefore, it is important that the infant be adequately hydrated. The
infant should be turned every 2 hours to expose all body surfaces to the light.
The infant should be observed for urination after the circumcision. Bleeding is a common complication after
circumcision. The nurse will check the penis for 12 hours after a circumcision to assess and provide
appropriate interventions for prevention and treatment of bleeding. Yellow exudates cover the glans penis in 24
hours after the circumcision. This is part of normal healing and not an infective process. The PlastiBell remains
in place for about a week and falls off when healing has taken place.
A mother expresses fear about changing her infants diaper after he is circumcised. What does the woman
need to be taught to take care of the infant when she gets home?
a. Cleanse the penis with prepackaged diaper wipes every 3 to 4 hours.
b. Apply constant, firm pressure by squeezing the penis with the fingers for at least 5 minutes if
bleeding occurs.
c. Cleanse the penis gently with water and put petroleum jelly around the glans after each diaper
d. Wash off the yellow exudate that forms on the glans at least once every day to prevent infection
Cleansing the penis gently with water and putting petroleum jelly around the glans after each diaper change are
appropriate when caring for an infant who has had a circumcision. With each diaper change, the penis should
be washed off with warm water to remove any urine or feces. If bleeding occurs, the nurse should apply gentle
pressure to the site of the bleeding with a sterile gauze square. Yellow exudates cover the glans penis in 24
hours after the circumcision. This is part of normal healing and not an infective process. The exudates should
not be removed.
When preparing to administer a hepatitis B vaccine to a newborn, the nurse should:
a. Obtain a syringe with a 25-gauge, 5/8-inch needle.
b. Confirm that the newborns mother has been infected with the hepatitis B virus.
c. Assess the dorsogluteal muscle as the preferred site for injection.
d. Confirm that the newborn is at least 24 hours old
The hepatitis B vaccine should be administered with a 25-gauge, 5/8-inch needle. Hepatitis B vaccination is
recommended for all infants. If the infant is born to an infected mother who is a chronic carrier, hepatitis
vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin should be administered within 12 hours of birth. Hepatitis B vaccine
should be given in the vastus lateralis muscle. Hepatitis B vaccine can be given at birth.
The nurse is performing a gestational age and physical assessment on the newborn. The infant appears to
have an excessive amount of saliva. The nurse recognizes that this finding:
a. Is normal.
b. Indicates that the infant is hungry.
c. May indicate that the infant has a tracheoesophageal fistula or esophageal atresia.
d. May indicate that the infant has a diaphragmatic hernia
As part of Standard Precautions, nurses wear gloves when handling the newborn. The chief reason is:
a. To protect the baby from infection.
b. That it is part of the Apgar protocol.
c. To protect the nurse from contamination by the newborn.
d. the nurse has primary responsibility for the baby during the first 2 hours.
The nurses initial action when caring for an infant with a slightly decreased temperature is to: a. Notify the physician immediately. b. Place a cap on the infants head and have the mother perform kangaroo care. c. Tell the mother that the infant must be kept in the nursery and observed for the next 4 hours. d. Change the formula because this is a sign of formula intolerance.ANS: B Keeping the head well covered with a cap will prevent further heat loss from the head, and having the mother place the infant skin to skin should increase the infants temperature. Nursing actions are needed first to correct the problem. If the problem persists after interventions, notification may then be necessary. A slightly decreased temperature can be treated in the mothers room. This would be an excellent time for parent teaching on prevention of cold stress. Mild temperature instability is an expected deviation from normal during the first days as the infant adapts to external life.An Apgar score of 10 at 1 minute after birth would indicate a(n): a. Infant having no difficulty adjusting to extrauterine life and needing no further testing. b. Infant in severe distress who needs resuscitation. c. Prediction of a future free of neurologic problems. d. Infant having no difficulty adjusting to extrauterine life but who should be assessed again at 5 minutes after birth.ANS: D An initial Apgar score of 10 is a good sign of healthy adaptation; however, it must be repeated at the 5-minute markWith regard to umbilical cord care, nurses should be aware that: a. The stump can easily become infected. b. A nurse noting bleeding from the vessels of the cord should immediately call for assistance. c. The cord clamp is removed at cord separation. d. The average cord separation time is 5 to 7 daysANS: A The cord stump is an excellent medium for bacterial growth. The nurse should first check the clamp (or tie) and apply a second one. If the bleeding does not stop, the nurse calls for assistance. The cord clamp is removed after 24 hours when it is dry. The average cord separation time is 10 to 14 daysIn the classification of newborns by gestational age and birth weight, the appropriate for gestational age (AGA) weight would: a. Fall between the 25th and 75th percentiles for the infants age. b. Depend on the infants length and the size of the head. c. Fall between the 10th and 90th percentiles for the infants age. d. Be modified to consider intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)ANS: C The AGA range is large: between the 10th and the 90th percentiles for the infants age. The infants length and size of the head are measured, but they do not affect the normal weight designation. IUGR applies to the fetus, not the newborns weight.During the complete physical examination 24 hours after birth: a. The parents are excused to reduce their normal anxiety. b. The nurse can gauge the neonates maturity level by assessing the infants general appearance. c. Once often neglected, blood pressure is now routinely checked. d. When the nurse listens to the heart, the S1 and S2 sounds can be heard; the first sound is somewhat higher in pitch and sharper than the second.ANS: B The nurse will be looking at skin color, alertness, cry, head size, and other features. The parents presence actively involves them in child care and gives the nurse a chance to observe interactions. Blood pressure is not usually taken unless cardiac problems are suspected. The second sound is higher and sharper than the first.As related to laboratory tests and diagnostic tests in the hospital after birth, nurses should be aware that: a. All states test for phenylketonuria (PKU), hypothyroidism, cystic fibrosis, and sickle cell diseases. b. Federal law prohibits newborn genetic testing without parental consent. c. If genetic screening is done before the infant is 24 hours old, it should be repeated at age 1 to 2 weeks. d. Hearing screening is now mandated by federal law.ANS: C If done very early, genetic screening should be repeated. States all test for PKU and hypothyroidism, but other genetic defects are not universally covered. Federal law mandates newborn genetic screening, but not screening for hearing problems (although more than half the states do mandate hearing screening)Nurses can assist parents who are trying to decide whether their son should be circumcised by explaining: a. The pros and cons of the procedure during the prenatal period. b. That the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that all newborn boys be routinely circumcised. c. That circumcision is rarely painful and any discomfort can be managed without medication. d. That the infant will likely be alert and hungry shortly after the procedureANS: A Many parents find themselves making the decision during the pressure of labor. The AAP and other professional organizations note the benefits but stop short of recommendation for routine circumcision. Circumcision is painful and must be managed with environmental, nonpharmacologic, and pharmacologic measures. After the procedure the infant may be fussy for several hours, or he may be sleepy and difficult to awaken for feedingAs part of their teaching function at discharge, nurses should educate parents regarding safe sleep. Which statement is incorrect? a. Prevent exposure to people with upper respiratory tract infections. b. Keep the infant away from secondhand smoke. c. Avoid loose bedding, water beds, and beanbag chairs. d. Place the infant on his or her abdomen to sleepANS: D The infant should be laid down to sleep on his or her back for better breathing and to prevent sudden infant death syndrome. Infants are vulnerable to respiratory infections; infected people must be kept away. Secondhand smoke can damage lungs. Infants can suffocate in loose bedding, and furniture that can trap them. Per AAP guidelines, infants should always be placed back to sleep and allowed tummy time to play, to prevent plagiocephalyThe normal term infant has little difficulty clearing the airway after birth. Most secretions are brought up to the oropharynx by the cough reflex. However, if the infant has excess secretions, the mouth and nasal passages can be cleared easily with a bulb syringe. When instructing parents on the correct use of this piece of equipment, it is important that the nurse teach them to: a. Avoid suctioning the nares. b. Insert the compressed bulb into the center of the mouth. c. Suction the mouth first. d. Remove the bulb syringe from the crib when finished.ANS: C The mouth should be suctioned first to prevent the infant from inhaling pharyngeal secretions by gasping as the nares are suctioned. The nasal passages should be suctioned one nostril at a time. After compression of the bulb it should be inserted into one side of the mouth. If the bulb is inserted into the center of the mouth, the gag reflex is likely to be initiated. When the infants cry no longer sounds as though it is through mucus or a bubble, suctioning can be stopped. The bulb syringe should remain in the crib so that it is easily accessible if needed againWhen teaching parents about mandatory newborn screening, it is important for the nurse to explain that the main purpose is to: a. Keep the state records updated. b. Allow accurate statistical information. c. Document the number of births. d. Recognize and treat newborn disorders earlyANS: D Early treatment of disorders will prevent morbidity associated with inborn errors of metabolism or other genetic conditions. Keeping records and reporting for statistical purposes are not the primary reason for the screening test. The number of births recorded is not reported from the newborn screening testTo prevent the abduction of newborns from the hospital, the nurse should: a. Instruct the mother not to give her infant to anyone except the one nurse assigned to her that day. b. Apply an electronic and identification bracelet to mother and infant. c. Carry the infant when transporting him or her in the halls. d. Restrict the amount of time infants are out of the nursery.ANS: B A measure taken by many facilities is to band both the mother and the baby with matching identification bracelets and band the infant with an electronic device that will alarm if the infant is removed from the maternity unit. It is impossible for one nurse to be on call for one mother and baby for the entire shift, so parents need to be able to identify the nurses who are working on the unit. Infants should always be transported in their bassinette, for both safety and security reasons. All maternity unit nursing staff should have unique identification bracelets in comparison with the rest of the hospital. Infants should remain with their parents and spend as little time in the nursery as possibleThe nurse administers vitamin K to the newborn for which reason? a. Most mothers have a diet deficient in vitamin K, which results in the infants being deficient. b. Vitamin K prevents the synthesis of prothrombin in the liver and must be given by injection. c. Bacteria that synthesize vitamin K are not present in the newborns intestinal tract. d. The supply of vitamin K is inadequate for at least 3 to 4 months, and the newborn must be supplementedANS: C Bacteria that synthesize vitamin K are not present in the newborns intestinal tract. Vitamin K is provided because the newborn does not have the intestinal flora to produce this vitamin for the first week. The maternal diet has no bearing on the amount of vitamin K found in the newborn. Vitamin K promotes the formation of clotting factors in the liver and is used for the prevention and treatment of hemorrhagic disease in the newborn. Vitamin K is not produced in the intestinal tract of the newborn until after microorganisms are introduced. By day 8, normal newborns are able to produce their own vitamin K.Nursing follow-up care often includes home visits for the new mother and her infant. Which information related to home visits is correct? a. Ideally, the visit is scheduled within 72 hours after discharge. b. Home visits are available in all areas. c. Visits are completed within a 30-minute time frame. d. Blood draws are not a part of the home visit.ANS: A The home visit is ideally scheduled within 72 hours after discharge. This timing allows early assessment and intervention for problems with feedings, jaundice, newborn adaptation, and maternal-infant interaction. Because home visits are expensive, they are not available in all geographic areas. Visits are usually 60 to 90 minutes in length to allow enough time for assessment and teaching. When jaundice is found, the nurse can discuss the implications and check the transcutaneous bilirubin level or draw blood for testingPain should be assessed regularly in all newborn infants. If the infant is displaying physiologic or behavioral cues indicating pain, measures should be taken to manage the pain. Examples of nonpharmacologic pain management techniques include (Select all that apply): a. Swaddling. b. Nonnutritive sucking. c. Skin-to-skin contact with the mother. d. Sucrose. e. Acetaminophen.ANS: A, B, C, D Swaddling, nonnutritive sucking, skin-to-skin contact with the mother, and sucrose are all appropriate nonpharmacologic techniques used to manage pain in neonates. Acetaminophen is a pharmacologic method of treating pain.Hearing loss is one of the genetic disorders included in the universal screening program. Auditory screening of all newborns within the first month of life is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Reasons for having this testing performed include (Select all that apply): a. Prevention or reduction of developmental delay. b. Reassurance for concerned new parents. c. Early identification and treatment. d. Helping the child communicate better. e. Recommendation by the Joint Committee on Infant HearingANS: A, C, D, E New parents are often anxious regarding this test and the impending results; however, it is not the reason for the screening to be performed. Auditory screening is usually done before hospital discharge. It is important for the nurse to ensure that the infant receives the appropriate testing and that the test is fully explained to the parents. For infants who are referred for further testing and follow-up, it is important for the nurse to provide further explanation and emotional support. All other responses are appropriate reasons for auditory screening of the newborn. Infants who do not pass the screening test should have it repeated. If they still do not pass the test, they should have a full audiologic and medical evaluation by 3 months of age. If necessary, the infant should be enrolled in early intervention by 6 months of ageAt 1 minute after birth, the nurse assesses the infant and notes a heart rate of 80 beats/minute, some flexion of the extremities, a weak cry, grimacing, and a pink body with blue extremities. The nurse would calculate an Apgar score of: ________ANS: 5 Each of the five signs the nurse noted would score an Apgar of 1 for a total of 5. Signs include heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color. The highest possible Apgar score is 10.