32 terms

Population and Migration

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Birth Rate
the number of babies born per 1,000 people in an area
Centroid
the geometric center of a country's irregular polygon.
Death Rate
the number of deaths per 1,000 people in an area
Demographic Transition
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
Stage One
high birth rates (25-50); high death rates (25-40); low life expectancy (33-50), low-moderate RNI (-.01-1.9%)
Stage Two
high birth rates (25-50); decreasing death rates (8-25); increasing life expectancy (<70); highest RNI (1.5-3.5%)
Stage 2.5: Newly Industrialized Countries
decreasing birth rates (12-30); lowering death rates (5-18); increasing life expectancy (<75);higher RNI (1.1-2.7%)
Stage Three
lowering birth rates (12-30); low death rates (5-12); higher life expectancy (<78); lowering RNI (0.5-1.2%)
Stage Four
low birth rates (8-16); low death rates (5-12); highest life expectancy (<82); low to negative RNI (0.8 to -0.6%)
dependency ratio
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.
doubling time
the time required for a population to double in size
transnational migration
A form of population movement in which a person regularly moves between two or more countries and forms a new cultural identity transcending a single geopolitical unit.
forced migration
Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors.
step migration
migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
chain migration
migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
cyclic movement
movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally
infant mortality rate
the number of babies that die per 1,000 babies in one year
J-curve
This is when the projection population show exponential growth; sometimes shape as a j-curve. This is important because if the population grows exponential our resource use will go up exponential and so will our use as well as a greater demand for food and more.
Life expectancy
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
net migration
The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration.
population pyramid
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex. Males on left, Females on right.
triangular
fast growing
extended triangle
moderate growth
column
slow growth
reduced pentagon
shrinking
push factor
factor, such as unemployment or the lack of freedom of speech, that makes people want to leave their country and move to another one
pull factor
factor such as freedom or employment opportunities that attract a person to a country
rate of national increase
the annual rate of population growth.
Birth Rate - Death Rate
rural-to-urban migration
people are drawn in to cities for opportunities; driven by poverty and hope to do better
S-curve
shows the world's population levels during the four stages of the Demographic Transition Model. Population growth starts slow to moderate, then becomes exponential. After a period of exponential growth, population increase eventually slows due to lack of resources and population may even decline.
Thomas Malthus
British economist who believed natural laws governed economic life; populations increased faster than food production; predicted that competition for resources would result in starvation for populations, wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population
Total fertility rate
The number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life