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Chapter 5 APUSH Vocab
Terms in this set (29)
Sugar Act of 1764
British law that decreased the duty on French molasses, making it more attractive for shippers to obey the law, and at the same time raises penalties for smuggling. The act enraged New England merchants, who opposed both the tax and the fact that merchants would be tried by British-appointed judges in a vice-admiralty court.
A maritime tribunal presided over by a royally appointed judge, with no jury
Stamp Act of 1765
British law imposing a tax on all paper used in the colonies. Widespread resistance prevented it from taking effect and led to its repeal in 1766.
The claim made by British politicians that the interests of the American colonists were adequately represented in parliament by merchants who traded with the colonies and by absolute landlords (mostly sugar planters) who owned Estates in the west Indies
Quartering Act of 1765
A British law passed by Parliament at the request of Gen. Thomas Gage,the British military commander in America, that required colonial governments to provide barracks and food for British troops
Stamp Act Congress
A Congress of delegates from nine assemblies that meant in New York City in October 1765 to protest the loss of American "rights and liberties", especially the right to trial by jury. Challenged the constitutionality about the Stamp and Sugar Acts by declaring the only colonist elected representatives could tax them.
Sons of Liberty
Colonists- primarily middling merchants and artisans- who bonded together to protest the Stamp Act and other imperial reforms of the 1760's. Originated in Boston in 1765, but soon spread to all the colonies.
English Common Law
The centuries-old body of legal rules and procedures that protected the lives and property of the Monarch's subjects.
The rights to life, liberty, and property. John Locke said that political authority is derived from social compacts that people made to preserve their natural rights
Declaratory Act of 1767
British law that established new duties on tea, glass, lead, paper, and painters' colors imported into the colonies. Led to boycotts and heightened tension between Britain and the American colonies.
Colonists attempted non importation agreements 3 times. Stamp Act (1766), Townshend duties (1768), and Coercive Acts (1774). Colonial radicals pressured merchants to stop importing British goods. 1774 to nonimportation adopted by First Continental Congress, and enforced by Continental Association. Woman were crucial to movement by reducing households' consumption of imported goods and producing large quantities of homespun cloth
Committees of Correspondence
A communications network established among towns in the colonies, and among colonial assemblies, between 1772 and 1773 to provide for rapid dissemination of news about important political developments.
Tea Act of May 1773
British act that lowered the existing tax on tea and granted exemptions to the East India Company to make their tea cheaper in the colonies and entice boycotting Americans to buy it. Resistance led to passage of Coercive Acts and imposition of military rule in Massachusetts.
Four British acts of 1774 meant to punish Massachusetts for the destruction of three shiploads of tea. Known as the Intolerable acts in America, led to open rebellion in Northern colonies
September 1774 gathering of colonial delegates in Philadelphia to discuss the crisis precipitated by the Coercive Acts. The Congress produced a declaration of rights and an agreement to impose a limited boycott of trade with Britain.
An association established in 1774 by the First Continental Congress to enforce a boycott of British goods.
A 1774 war led by Virginia's royal governed, the earl of _____, against the Ohio Shawnees, who had a long-standing claim to Kentucky as a hunting ground. The Shawnees were defeated and Dunmore and his militia forces claimed Kentucky as their own.
Colonial militiamen who stood ready to mobilize on short notice during the imperial crisis of the 1770's. These volunteers were the core of the citizens' army that met British troops at Lexington and Concord in April 1775
Second Continental Congress
Legislative body that governed the United States from May 1775 through the war's duration. It established an army, created it's own money, and declared independence once all hope for a peaceful reconciliation with Britain was gone.
Declaration of Independence
A document containing philosophical principles and a list of grievances that declared separation from Britain. Adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, it ended a period of intense debate with moderates still hoping to reconcile with Britain.
The principle that ultimate power lies in the hands of the electorate.
Understood the need for far-reaching imperial reform. Passed the Currency Act of 1764, won parliamentary approval of the Sugar Act of 1764. He had the challenge of raising revenue from the colonies. Prime minister for a while.
Wrote "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" which circulated widely and served as an early call to resistance. Urged colonists to remember ancestors and oppose parliamentary races.
Chancellor of the exchequer, left in command for William Pitt. Member of the Board of Trade. Sought restrictions on the colonial assemblies and strongly supported the Stamp Act. Townshend Act of 1776
Became Prime Minister in early 1770. Skillful politician. Designed new compromise. Thought it was foolish to tax British exports to America, persuaded Parliament to repeal most of the Townshend duties, however retained the tax on tea as a symbol of Parliament's supremacy.
One of the most outspoken patriots in Massachusetts. Repudiated parliamentary supremacy and claimed quality for the American assemblies within the empire.
Virginia's royal governor. Clashed repeatedly with the House of Burgesses, but when fitting, willing to defy crown. Organized local militia, led force of men against Ohio Shawnees and claimed Kentucky.
Published "Common Sense" in which he urged Americans to become independent. Served as a minor customs official in England until he was fired for joining a protest against low wages. Had republican sentiments.
Main author of the Declaration of Independence. Mobilized resistance to the Coercive Acts with pamphlet "A Summary View of the Rights of British America". Employed ideas of the European Enlightenment.
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