Marger and Gangully key terms
Terms in this set (158)
The process in which a minority ethnic group is integrated into the societal mainstream. See also cultural assimilation; structural assimilation; biological assimilation; psychological assimilation; segmented assimilation
A minority group that seeks integration into the mainstream society.
A type of stratification in which status is acquired by heredity and in which mobility is severely constrained by law or custom.
A group that enters a previously unpopulated or underpopulated territory and establishes itself as the dominant group.
dominant ethnic group
That group at the top of the ethnic hierarchy, which receives a disproportionate share of wealth, exercises predominant political authority, and has the greatest influence on shaping the society's cultural system.
Marriage within one's social group, regulated on the basis of ethnicity, race, social class, educational level, religion, or other social characteristics.
The structural arrangement of diverse groups of a multiethnic society in a rank order, from those at the top, with most of the society's wealth and power, to those at the bottom, with correspondingly little.
A rank order of groups, each made up of people with presumed common cultural or physical characteristics, interacting in patterns of dominance and subordination. Also referred to as majority-minority or dominant-subordinate relations.
The subordination of a migrant population by an indigenous racial or ethnic group.
The forced transfer of people from one society to another to be exploited as captive workers.
See ethnic stratification.
Certain ethnic groups in multiethnic societies that occupy a middle economic and political status between the dominant group and subordinate groups, often serving as intermediaries between them.
The subordination of an indigenous population by a migrant group.
A minority group that seeks to establish itself as the society's dominant group.
Groups that, on the basis of their physical or cultural traits, are given differential and unequal treatment and receive fewer of the society's rewards.
A minority group that seeks to maintain its cultural ways at the same time it participates in the society's major political and economic institutions.
See host society.
A minority group that seeks neither assimilation nor cultural autonomy, but aims for a more complete political independence from the dominant society.
A category of people with approximately similar incomes and occupations who share similar lifestyles.
The movement up or down a society's class or ethnic hierarchy by individuals or groups.
A well-established system of structured inequality in which people and groups receive different amounts of the society's valued resources, based on various social, and sometimes physical, characteristics.
See minority groups.
The movement of people from one society to another by their own choice, most commonly in hope of economic betterment, but in some cases to escape political or religious oppression.
The belief that the cultures displayed by human groups are not easily changed and therefore can be ranked as superior or inferior.
A group within a larger society that displays a unique set of cultural traits and a sense of community among members.
The belief by members of a group that their culture is superior to others.
A set of beliefs and values that explain, rationalize, and justify inequalities in wealth, power, and privilege.
A socially constructed category of humans, classified on the basis of certain arbitrarily selected hereditary characteristics that differentiate them from other human groups.
An ethnic group whose members are noticeably different physically from the dominant ethnic group.
The belief that humans are subdivided into distinct hereditary groups that are innately different in their social behavior and mental capacities and that can therefore be ranked as superior or inferior.
A process in which the false definition of a situation produces behavior that, in turn, makes real the originally falsely defined situation.
A theory, based on the notion of "survival of the fittest," holding that one's economic standing is ultimately the product of one's inherent capabilities.
A theory suggesting that a certain personality type is inclined to hold prejudicial views and engage in discriminatory behavior
A measure of social distance in which respondents are asked whether they would accept a member of an ethnic out-group in varying social contexts, extending from very close encounters to very remote ones.
Discrimination against people on the basis of simply being part of a socially assigned category.
Negative actions against a group, aimed at denying its members equal access to societal rewards. See also individual discrimination; institutional discrimination; statistical discrimination; structural discrimination.
An oversimplistic and exaggerated belief about members of an ethnic group, generally acquired secondhand and resistant to change despite contrary evidence.
An early theory of prejudice and discrimination explaining these as a means by which people express hostility arising from frustration. Also referred to as scapegoating.
An attempt to systematically exterminate an ethnic or racial group.
See micro discrimination.
Actions taken against members of particular groups that are the result of the policies and structures of organizations and institutions. May be direct, in which discrimination is based on law or custom, or indirect, in which it is obscure and often unintended. The latter is referred to as structural discrimination.
Discrimination against minority groups not limited to specific cases but firmly incorporated in the society's normative system. See also institutional discrimination.
As applied to ethnic relations, the notion that in capitalist societies ethnic antagonism serves the interests of the capitalist class by keeping the working class divided along racial and ethnic lines and thus easier to control.
A theoretical model explaining that prejudice and discrimination are variable, depending on a number of situational factors; hence, attitudes and actions toward members of minority groups may fluctuate within different social contexts.
Actions taken by individuals or small groups to injure or deny access to societal resources (jobs, housing, education) to members of a minority ethnic group.
Theories that explain prejudice and discrimination as conforming responses to social situations in which people find themselves.
Theories that view prejudice and discrimination as emerging from dominant group interests and used to protect and enhance those interests.
A generalized belief, usually inflexible and unfavorable, applied to members of a particular group.
A form of statistical discrimination in which law enforcement agencies pick out members of particular racial or ethnic groups, solely on the basis of their race or ethnicity, on the assumption that they are more likely to be engaging in illegal activities.
The degree of intimacy members of one ethnic group are willing to accept with members of other ethnic groups.
split labor market theory
A theory holding that it is workers of the dominant ethnic group who are the chief beneficiaries of prejudice and discrimination, which help to keep ethnic minorities out of desired occupations.
Discrimination against people based on beliefs about the social category of which they are members; unlike categorical discrimination, it is responsive to counterevidence.
Discrimination that results from the normal functioning of a society's institutions, rather than the direct and intended actions or policies of individuals and organizations.
See equalitarian pluralism.
See cultural assimilation.
Anglo core group
The British-origin group that established itself as the American dominant group and whose culture has been understood to be the society's standard.
Destruction of a minority ethnic group, perhaps culminating in genocide.
Multiethnic societies in which cultural assimilation is encouraged for all groups but where structural assimilation occurs at different rates, depending on groups' cultural and physical distance from the dominant group.
Multiethnic societies in which inequalitarian pluralism, including extreme segregation, is the chief feature of ethnic relations. Also referred to as segregationist societies.
competitive race relations
Ethnic relations in which groups, living mostly in segregated areas, are in competition for the society's jobs, education, and other resources.
Theories that view societies as held together by the power of dominant classes and ruling elites, able to impose their will on others; stability and order are maintained through coercion, not consensus.
Ethnic relations in which structural and cultural differences among groups are protected by the state and institutional provisions are made to encourage an ethnically proportionate distribution of power and privilege.
corporate pluralistic societies
Multiethnic societies in which groups remain culturally and perhaps physically separated, but in a state of relatively balanced political and economic power. Also referred to as multicultural societies.
Ethnic relations in which groups retain their cultural and much of their structural distinctness but participate on an equal basis in a common political and economic system.
Removal of a group from the society through deportation or internment.
Gordon's stages of assimilation
A theoretical model suggesting that assimilation is not a straightforward movement but rather comprises different degrees of increasingly more profound social and cultural integration.
Ethnic relations in which groups are separated structurally and coexist in a state of highly unequal access to power and privilege.
A form of assimilation in which people of diverse ethnic groups participate freely and fully in the institutions of the larger society unconstrained by ethnicity.
An ethnic ideology in the United States suggesting that various ethnic groups contribute to the creation of a hybrid "American."
In the United States, the encouragement of the expression of different ethnic cultures. In Canada and Australia, an official policy recognizing and encouraging the retention of ethnic cultures.
A society composed of numerous cultural, racial, and religious groups. nativism Anti-immigrant views and actions based on the perceived threat of immigrants to undermine the economic, social, and cultural interests of native-born people.
Theories postulating that a society is a relatively balanced system made up of differently functioning but interrelated parts, held together by a consensus of values among groups and individuals.
Park's race relations cycle
A model of ethnic relations suggesting that groups pass through a sequence of stages contact, competition, accommodation, and, ultimately, full assimilation.
paternalistic race relations
A system such as slavery in which there is maximum social distance and extreme inequality between dominant and subordinate groups.
The retention of ethnic cultures and boundaries within the larger society. See also cultural pluralism; structural pluralism; equalitarian pluralism; inequalitarian pluralism; corporate pluralism.
A process by which people increasingly identify themselves as part of the larger society rather than an ethnic group
The notion that immigrant assimilation may take different forms adoption of the dominant culture, adoption of an oppositional culture, or economic advancement while retaining the ethnic culture.
A process in which social interaction within various institutions and settings increases among different ethnic groups.
The continued social separation of minority ethnic groups from the dominant group and perhaps from each other.
cultural absorption of minority identity groups into the main or dominant cultural body
substantial amount of freedom short of independence
a type of democratic system that favors executive power sharing and the formation of grand coalition gov't, formal and informal separation of powers between the various branches of gov't, bicameral legislature with minority groups' representation in the upper chamber, multiple party system, elections based on proportional representation, territorial and nonterritorial federalism, and written constitution with difficult amendment procedures.
the school of thought that regards ethnic identity as a product of enduring social constructions that is the result of human actions and choices
communities found in for...
a large or small group of people united by a common inherited culture, racial similarity, common religion, belief in a common history and ancestry and who exhibit a strong psychological sentiment of belonging to a group
confrontation(usually violent) between ethnic groups
large or small cultural group with a distinct language, religion, and history and that exhibits strong sentiment of separate and distinct group identity
a nation based upon the spirit of the cultural community that includes, among other things, common language, religion, customs, traditions and history
ethnic political movement
a movement that attempts to represent the collective consciousness and aspirations of the entire community defined on the basis of the common ethnicity
the duties and responsibilities of members toward their ethnic groups
a clash of cultures rooted in both objectives and psychological factors that fuse lineage with religious belief-system.
a group where ethnic religious identities are inseparable in the making of community
an outbreak of ethnic conflict in a weak state, though state authority has not completely collapsed
a system of state-ethnic group relations, found usually in parts of Africa, where quasi autonomous state and various ethnoregional interest engage, on the basis of commonly accepted of procedural norms and rules, in a process of mutual accomodation
ethnic groups that are longtime occupants of a particular territory and therefore claim an exclusive as well as moral right to rule it
the school of thought that regards ethnic identity as essentially a tool that is used to obtain material or instrumental gains for an ethnic group and its leaders
claim to territory belonging to and controlled by a foreign power based on historical (territory historically belonged to claimant) and cultural (ethnic affinity of the claimant with the local population) arguments
a politicized ethnic group with well-developed statist ideas
one's sentiment for and loyalty to one's nation
right of nations to decide their political future
the creation of the nation either along civic or ethnic lines
strictly speaking an ethnic nation that is coterminous with a state; colloquially, it is used to describe multiethnic states as well
the school of thought that regards ethnic identity as being "naturally given"
a situation of perceived discrepancy between value expectations and value expectancies in a society
"revolution of rising expectations"
situation prevailing in the immediate post-colonial period in several developing countries where people expected that their condition would improve drastically with political independence
"revolution of rising frustrations"
a general condition of mass anger and protest in many postcolonial developing states as these states' economies began to stagnate and decline in the 1960s and 1970s
realist conception in the field of international relations that states that whatever a state does to protect its security makes its enemies insecure; hence, they in turn try to secure themselves. This sets into motion an upward spiral of insecurity for all
legal concept describing a social group that occupies a defined territory and is organized under common political institutions and an effective government. The state further exercises sovereign authority within its boundaries and is recognized as sovereign by other states
the creation of state institutions, government, and civil society
total disintegration of the structure, authority, power, law, and political order within a state
states that are usually economically and militarily the most powerful and that have vast global interests and commitments compared to other states in the international system
constitutive theory of recognition
the act of diplomatic recognition by itself confers statehood and legal personality on a country
declaratory theory of recognition
posits that are formal recognition of statehood by outside countries is enough to bring a new state into legal existence
doctrine of state sovereignty
international fundamental norm to justify survival of an existing state
ideological theory of recognition
involves using ideological criteria, for example, that it is democratic or capitalistic, to determine whether the government of a new state can pass a political eligibility test
international normative regime
norms, rules, procedure, and principles of behavior within the international system that govern interstate relations and membership in that system
a form of european unification in which some powers are progressively transferred to the center while others are devolved to the regions; it can provide a way by which minorities could gain autonomy within existing states
national home regime
a solution to a competing ethnic claims; an idea designed to reconcile the integrity and sovereignty of states; to provide a context for common nationality links for nations that are divided by state boundaries; to address their yearning for national identity; and to do so without undermining the cohesion of multinational societies
as an international legal principle, it signifies the acquisition of territory that is not already a part of another state. This is no longer possible as all areas of the world are under the jurisdiction of one authority over another
argument that the only inescapable requirement for a legitimate secessionist claim is the existence of a genuine "self" wanting to control its political destiny
Peace of Westphalia
an agreement, made in 1648, that ended the Thirty Years War in Europe and marked the breakup of medieval Christendom and the birth of the modern sovereign state
a belief in the political theory that gov't is created by and subject to the will of the people, who are the source of all political power
principle of national self-determination
right of nations to decide their political future
principle of nonintervention
cardinal principle of international law that makes it illegal for states and other international bodies to intervene in the internal affairs of a state w/o its express consent
priniciple of nonuse of force recognition
cardinal principle of international law that makes it illegal for states and other international bodies to actually use or threaten the use of force against another state
"regime of managed ethnic heterogeneity"
a group of wisely articulated conflict-mitigating doctrines, practices, principles, strategies, and agreements governing inter-group relations in heterogenous states and providing guidelines regarding how best to respond to ethno-political crises and conflict
a scheme under which, corresponding to the various degrees of oppression faced by an ethnic group at the hands of its governing state, international law would recognize a continuum of remedies ranging from protection of individual rights, to minority rights to secession
an act of separation whereby a group or region breaks away from one state to either from a new independent state or join with another state
status of belligerency
indication by an external party that it regards insurgents involved in an armed internal conflict as having, though temporarily, the same status as that of states
status of insurgency
indication by an external party that it regards insurgents involved in an armed internal conflict as legal contestants and not as mere law breakers
"white mans burden" argument
a process by whereby uncivilized nations could be introduced into civilized international society after a period of enlightened education and preparation for self-government
motives for partisan external intervention in ethnic conflicts that are based more on reasons of justice, humanitarian concerns, ethnic affinity,... rather than narrow calculations of gains and losses and costs and benefits
suggests that the greater the number of onlookers in a situation in which suffering or victimized person requires urgent attention and assistance, the greater will be the diffusion of responsibility
countries that use children to fight battles
complex humanitarian emergency
unimaginable levels of suffering for civilian populations caught in the crossfire of conflict
complex political emergency
develops as a result of state failure and collapse
counterinsurgency (COIN) operation
military offensive undertaken to destroy the fighting capability of underground insurgent organizations
the powerful emulative effect that the ethnic conflict in one state or region has on similar conflicts in other states and regions
a systematic and deliberate policy that aims to create ethnically homogenous territorial spaces by killing and expelling members belonging to other ethnic groups from that territory
co-national of an ethnic group usually residing in a neighboring state
use of terrorist tactics by disgruntled ethnic groups
generally exhibit most or all of the following characteristics: the governments social contract w/ its citizens is severely weakened; the government relies mainly on force and coercion to enforce its existing authority; the governments' political legitimacy is highly compromised; the gov't is in control of only a small fraction of the state's territory and borders; and the gov;t capacity to deliver public goods and services to all citizens is severely restricted, with warlords and non-state entities having taken over most of this function
a systematic program of killing and massacre aimed at the complete and total extermination of an ethnic group or nation
genocidal mass rape
sexual violence directed against women for the deliberate extermination of an ethnic group or nation
narcotics trade practiced by terrorist groups to finance their military operations
motives for partisan external intervention in ethnic conflicts that are based on narrow calculations of gains and losses and costs and benefits
internally displaced persons (IPDs)
people who have been forced to resettle elsewhere within their own country where conditions are safer
international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs)
intenationally-operating nongovernmental organizations which are involved in transnational networks
nongovernmental organization (NGOs)
national and international organizations that encompass non-state actors such as civil society, social movements and private voluntary organizations; many are involved in humanitarian work in trouble spots across the globe
outside intervention into an ethnic conflict that is favorable to one side in the conflict
policy of diffusion and encouragement
policy of providing partisan support to (usually) ethnic insurgents against the state allowed by an external actor
policy of isolation and suppression
policy of providing partisan support to the state against ethnic insurgents followed by an external actor
partisan external support that may include statements of concern in support in IGOs diplomatic pressure, etc more difficult to measure than tangible support
mostly civilian victims of violent conflict
partisan external support consisting of military, financial, material, and logistical aid