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asymmetry; no germ layers; no cephalization; no coelom; invertebrates; yellow, red tree, tube sponges; no gut


found in sponges; provide structural support and deter predators


diploblastic (endoderm and exoderm); radial symmetry; acoelom and sac gut; no skeleton (hydrostatic)


in the epidermis of tentacles; delivers stinging venom that paralyzes prey and enable Cnidarins to catch their victim

Nerve net

interconnected nerve cells around the body; conducts stimulus


saucer or dorm-shaped; refers to any free-swimming jellyfish stages in Cnidaria


attatches to bottom of the sea and asexually terns into a jellyfish

Nematodes (Roundworms)

Psuedocoelomates; triploblastic; one way gut; unsegmented; bilateral; invertebrate; parisitic


to grow and live off of something else; one benetfits and host is harmed


bilateral symmetry; coelom; triploblastic; cephalization;segmented; hydrostatic skeleton


excretory structure that filters body fluid in earthworms; kidney structure


where food is chewed; hard


stomach that adds digestive enzymes; squishy


a type of mollusk; clams and oyesters

What are flagellated cells that move the water through the sponge?


What body form do many cnidarians have?


What do you call the sections in a flat worm?


Where is the nerve cord and the main blood vessel in earthworms?

nerve cord- ventral; blood vessel- dorsal

What type of circulatory system do earthworms have?

aortic arches; closed circulatory system

What type of tissue would you find around gut of a earthworm?


How do earthworms differ from nematodes(roundworms)?

earthworms have true ceolom

What type of ciruclatory system does a squid (mollusk) have?

closed ciruclatory system

Do squid's tentacles have cnidocytes?

no they have suckers

Where are the nerve cord and heart in the crayfish? (protostomes)

nerve cord- ventral; heart- dorsal

What is the exoskeleton of the crayfish made out of? (arthropods)


Where are the main artery and nerve cord in the grasshopper? (protostomes)

main artery- dorsal; nerve chord- ventral

What is a ganglion?

group of internuerons (brain)

What system do starfish use for locomotion

tube feet

What does a starfish's digestive gland do and where are they found?

secretes digestive enzymes and are found in the rays right above the tube feet

How does reproductive tissue in a starfish differ in appearance from their digestive glands?

distive gland look like soggy poop and reproductive gland were pinkish and ciruclar

Wher eis a sea cucumbers (echinodermata) mouth?

anterior end

What 4 characterisitics are common in all chordates?

notochord, paryngeal pouches, hollow dorsal nerve chord, post anal tail

How does a sea squirt get its food?

they filter feed

What does a notochord and gill slits provide for the embryo?

notochord: helps embryo gorw and form motor nuerons in spinal chord; gill slits: helps trap suspended food particles

Where is the nerve tissue and blood tissue in Lamprey and hagfish?

nerve tissue: dorsal; blood tissue: ventral

What is new in Lamprey an dhagfish which wasn't present in the lancelet?


What type of vertebra do sharks have?


What new advance is foudn in sharks than the hagfish and lamprey?


What is the structure in bony fish that protects the gills?


What type of heart does a bony fish have?

2 chamber heart

What two strucutre sod amphimbians use to breath in air?

the skin and lungs (gills)

How many chambers are found in an amphimbians heart?


What is the skin like in an amphibian?

they can breathe through their skin and soak up water; slimy mucus layer

What is the skin like in a reptile?

rough; contains connective tissues and small bones

How do reptiles have gas exchange?

have spongy lungs which increase surface area and moveable ribs

Are reptiles ectotherm or endotherms?


What new advances to luncgs, heart, and bones help birds to fly?

4 chambered heart- high metabolism; one way lungs- allows them to breath more air faster; acellular bones- lightweight

Are birds ectotherms?

no endothermic


egg laying mammals


bear live young at an extremely early age and attatches to a nipple which is in a pouch

placental mammals

becoming pregnant (humans)


groups that has a highly developed cerebrum and complex behaviors


in the epidermis of tentacles of cnidarians; stinging structure


when the cavity is between mesoderm and endoderm


when the body cavity is completely surrounded by mesoderm

Who has ladder type nerves? and what are they?

flatworms; 2 long chords

What does a close circulatory system have?



triploblastic; bilateral; coelom; one way gut; invertebrate; clams and octopi (bivalves and squid)


group that includes snails and slugs


invertebrae with a large head

aortic arches

heart that pumps blood thorugh closed circulatory system


triploblastic; bilateral; coelomate; one way gut; exoskeleton; jointed appendages

What kind of circulatory system does a cray fish or arthropod have?


What does the water vascular system in starfish do?

moves tube feet, water, oxygen, wastes, and nutrients


triploblastic; pentaradial symmetry; one way gut; coelomate; endoskeleton, but not chordate; sea cucumbers

sea squirts

triploblastic; bilatera; ceolom; one-way gut; invertebrate; chordate


bilateral; triploblastic; coelomate; one-way gut; invertebrate; chordate

lamprey and hagfish

triploblastic; bilateral; one-way gut; ceolomate; chordate; vertebrate; cartilage skeleton

cartilage fish

triploblastic; bilateral; coelomate; one-way gut; vertebrates and chordates; sharks

bony fish

bilateral; triploblastic; one-way gut; ceolomate; chordate; vertebrate

What characteristics are new in mammals?

hair and mammary glands (give milk)


triploblastic; bilateral; one-way gut; coelom; chordate; vertebrate; frogs; have to reproduce in water; chordate; vertebrates


bilateral; triploblastic; coelom; one-way gut; chordate; vertebrates


triploblastic; bilateral; coelomate; one-way gut; endoskeleton; vertebrate; chordate


triploblastic; bilateral; coelomate; one-way gut; endoskeleton; vertebrates; chordates


opening in abdomen of crustaceans that allow air into trachea


chordates that filter feed on the bottom of the ocean using siphons

What is a scolex of a flatworm (tapeworm)?

the head part

What do eyespots do for tapeworms?

they sense light and dark

What are flamecells in flat worms?

they act as kidneys


triploblastic; sac gut; aceolomate; bilateral; invertebrate


cold blooded


warm blooded


make their own food to get energy


use sun and light to get energy and make sugar


obtains food by consuming living things; aka consumers


decomposers; feeds on dead matter

filter feeders

catch algae or small animals by using modified gills or other structures as nets that filter food items out of water; spend their lives in a single spot


eats other animals to obtain energy; uses pointed teeth and sharp claws


eats plants or parts of plants to obtain energy; leaves wear down teeth


eats both plants and animals to obtain energy

What is homeostasis and why is important?

the balance of the inner and external parts of you body; has to be there otherwise bodily functions cannot occur

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