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92 terms

Biology Animal Test

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Sponges
asymmetry; no germ layers; no cephalization; no coelom; invertebrates; yellow, red tree, tube sponges; no gut
Spicules
found in sponges; provide structural support and deter predators
Cnidaria
diploblastic (endoderm and exoderm); radial symmetry; acoelom and sac gut; no skeleton (hydrostatic)
Cnidocytes
in the epidermis of tentacles; delivers stinging venom that paralyzes prey and enable Cnidarins to catch their victim
Nerve net
interconnected nerve cells around the body; conducts stimulus
medusa
saucer or dorm-shaped; refers to any free-swimming jellyfish stages in Cnidaria
Polyp
attatches to bottom of the sea and asexually terns into a jellyfish
Nematodes (Roundworms)
Psuedocoelomates; triploblastic; one way gut; unsegmented; bilateral; invertebrate; parisitic
parasitic
to grow and live off of something else; one benetfits and host is harmed
Earthworm
bilateral symmetry; coelom; triploblastic; cephalization;segmented; hydrostatic skeleton
nephridium
excretory structure that filters body fluid in earthworms; kidney structure
gizzard
where food is chewed; hard
crop
stomach that adds digestive enzymes; squishy
bivalve
a type of mollusk; clams and oyesters
What are flagellated cells that move the water through the sponge?
choanocytes
What body form do many cnidarians have?
medusa
What do you call the sections in a flat worm?
proglottid
Where is the nerve cord and the main blood vessel in earthworms?
nerve cord- ventral; blood vessel- dorsal
What type of circulatory system do earthworms have?
aortic arches; closed circulatory system
What type of tissue would you find around gut of a earthworm?
mesoderm
How do earthworms differ from nematodes(roundworms)?
earthworms have true ceolom
What type of ciruclatory system does a squid (mollusk) have?
closed ciruclatory system
Do squid's tentacles have cnidocytes?
no they have suckers
Where are the nerve cord and heart in the crayfish? (protostomes)
nerve cord- ventral; heart- dorsal
What is the exoskeleton of the crayfish made out of? (arthropods)
chitin
Where are the main artery and nerve cord in the grasshopper? (protostomes)
main artery- dorsal; nerve chord- ventral
What is a ganglion?
group of internuerons (brain)
What system do starfish use for locomotion
tube feet
What does a starfish's digestive gland do and where are they found?
secretes digestive enzymes and are found in the rays right above the tube feet
How does reproductive tissue in a starfish differ in appearance from their digestive glands?
distive gland look like soggy poop and reproductive gland were pinkish and ciruclar
Wher eis a sea cucumbers (echinodermata) mouth?
anterior end
What 4 characterisitics are common in all chordates?
notochord, paryngeal pouches, hollow dorsal nerve chord, post anal tail
How does a sea squirt get its food?
they filter feed
What does a notochord and gill slits provide for the embryo?
notochord: helps embryo gorw and form motor nuerons in spinal chord; gill slits: helps trap suspended food particles
Where is the nerve tissue and blood tissue in Lamprey and hagfish?
nerve tissue: dorsal; blood tissue: ventral
What is new in Lamprey an dhagfish which wasn't present in the lancelet?
vertebrates
What type of vertebra do sharks have?
cartilage
What new advance is foudn in sharks than the hagfish and lamprey?
jaw
What is the structure in bony fish that protects the gills?
operculum
What type of heart does a bony fish have?
2 chamber heart
What two strucutre sod amphimbians use to breath in air?
the skin and lungs (gills)
How many chambers are found in an amphimbians heart?
3
What is the skin like in an amphibian?
they can breathe through their skin and soak up water; slimy mucus layer
What is the skin like in a reptile?
rough; contains connective tissues and small bones
How do reptiles have gas exchange?
have spongy lungs which increase surface area and moveable ribs
Are reptiles ectotherm or endotherms?
ectothermic
What new advances to luncgs, heart, and bones help birds to fly?
4 chambered heart- high metabolism; one way lungs- allows them to breath more air faster; acellular bones- lightweight
Are birds ectotherms?
no endothermic
monotermes
egg laying mammals
maruspials
bear live young at an extremely early age and attatches to a nipple which is in a pouch
placental mammals
becoming pregnant (humans)
Primate
groups that has a highly developed cerebrum and complex behaviors
cnidocytes
in the epidermis of tentacles of cnidarians; stinging structure
psuedocoelomate
when the cavity is between mesoderm and endoderm
coelomate
when the body cavity is completely surrounded by mesoderm
Who has ladder type nerves? and what are they?
flatworms; 2 long chords
What does a close circulatory system have?
capillaries
mollusks
triploblastic; bilateral; coelom; one way gut; invertebrate; clams and octopi (bivalves and squid)
gastropod
group that includes snails and slugs
cephalopod
invertebrae with a large head
aortic arches
heart that pumps blood thorugh closed circulatory system
arthropoda
triploblastic; bilateral; coelomate; one way gut; exoskeleton; jointed appendages
What kind of circulatory system does a cray fish or arthropod have?
open
What does the water vascular system in starfish do?
moves tube feet, water, oxygen, wastes, and nutrients
encinodermata
triploblastic; pentaradial symmetry; one way gut; coelomate; endoskeleton, but not chordate; sea cucumbers
sea squirts
triploblastic; bilatera; ceolom; one-way gut; invertebrate; chordate
lancelets
bilateral; triploblastic; coelomate; one-way gut; invertebrate; chordate
lamprey and hagfish
triploblastic; bilateral; one-way gut; ceolomate; chordate; vertebrate; cartilage skeleton
cartilage fish
triploblastic; bilateral; coelomate; one-way gut; vertebrates and chordates; sharks
bony fish
bilateral; triploblastic; one-way gut; ceolomate; chordate; vertebrate
What characteristics are new in mammals?
hair and mammary glands (give milk)
amphibians
triploblastic; bilateral; one-way gut; coelom; chordate; vertebrate; frogs; have to reproduce in water; chordate; vertebrates
reptiles
bilateral; triploblastic; coelom; one-way gut; chordate; vertebrates
birds
triploblastic; bilateral; coelomate; one-way gut; endoskeleton; vertebrate; chordate
mammals
triploblastic; bilateral; coelomate; one-way gut; endoskeleton; vertebrates; chordates
spiracle
opening in abdomen of crustaceans that allow air into trachea
turnicates
chordates that filter feed on the bottom of the ocean using siphons
What is a scolex of a flatworm (tapeworm)?
the head part
What do eyespots do for tapeworms?
they sense light and dark
What are flamecells in flat worms?
they act as kidneys
flatworms
triploblastic; sac gut; aceolomate; bilateral; invertebrate
ectothermic
cold blooded
endothermic
warm blooded
producers
make their own food to get energy
autotrophs
use sun and light to get energy and make sugar
heterotrophs
obtains food by consuming living things; aka consumers
detrivores
decomposers; feeds on dead matter
filter feeders
catch algae or small animals by using modified gills or other structures as nets that filter food items out of water; spend their lives in a single spot
carnivore
eats other animals to obtain energy; uses pointed teeth and sharp claws
herbivores
eats plants or parts of plants to obtain energy; leaves wear down teeth
omnivores
eats both plants and animals to obtain energy
What is homeostasis and why is important?
the balance of the inner and external parts of you body; has to be there otherwise bodily functions cannot occur