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cell shape, cell wall structure, motility

what are the 3 characteristics of bacteria?

spherical, rod shaped, spiral shaped

what are the 3 types of cell shape?


what is an example of a SPHERICAL cell shape?


what is an example of a ROD SHAPED cell shape?


what is an example of a SPIRAL SHAPED cell shape?


method of movement

bacteria flagellum, pili, slime threads

what are the 3 motility forms?

divide repeatedly, exponential growth

how do bacteria reproduce? (2)

binary fission

made of prokaryote asexual reproduction in which each daughter cell receives an identical copy of the parent's cell chromosome


dormant cell formed by certain bacteria that can survive very harsh conditions


a disease causing organism or virus

invading tissues, destroying cells

how does bacteria cause illness? (2)

washing hands, careful preparation of food, attention to water

what are 3 ways human defend against bacterial diseases?


chemicals that slow or prevent the growth of microorganisms


infect cells by inserting genes

dna or rna, surrounded by protein coat

what is the structure of a virus? (2)

entering a host cell and reproducing

what is the function of a virus?


viruses that infect bacteria

lytic and lysogenic cycle

what 2 ways that viruses reproduce?


reverse the usual DNA to RNA


what is used for the life cycle of a retrovirus?

lytic cycle

phage attaches to the host cell & injects its dna

lysogenic cycle

virus injects its genes into the host

good hygiene, proper sanitation, take vaccines

how do humans defend against viral diseases? (3)


deactivated varieties or small pieces of pathogen that stimulate immune system to defend against actual pathogen


eukaryotes that are not animals, plants, or fungi, unicellular & free living


animal like, consume other organisms


enormous masses of algae, populations grow out of control in the presence of excess waste in water, depletes nutrients and oxygen to kill fish

eukaryotes, unicellular and freeliving, vary in structure and function

describe (3) characteristics that all protists have in common

consume and process food, respond to stimuli, excrete waters, reproduce

explain why certain unicellular protists can be considered the most complex of cells (3)

animal like, plant like, fungus like

identify 3 types of nutrition among protists


eukaryotic heterotrophs

hyphae, cell walls made of chitin

describe the basic structure of fungi (2)


tubular, hard wall of chitin, crosswalls may form compartments, multinucleate, grow at tips


extensive, feeding web of hyphae

absorptive nutrition

hyphal tis release enzymes, enzymatic breakdfown of substrate, products diffuse back into hyphae


haploid single cell with thick cell walls

in asexual reproduction, haploid spores reproduce by mitosis

explain the function of spores in fungal reproduction


symbiotic relationship between fugus and a photosynthetic organism


association of roots and fungus

mycorrhizae, lichen

what are 2 examples of symbiotic fungi?

ringworm, tapeworm

what are 2 fungal diseases of plants?

athlete's foot, thrush

what are 2 fungal diseases of humans?

eating mushrooms

what is a human use of fungi?

decomposer in ecosystem

what is the role of fungi in recycling organic matter?

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