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45 terms

bacteria, protists, viruses & fungi

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cell shape, cell wall structure, motility
what are the 3 characteristics of bacteria?
spherical, rod shaped, spiral shaped
what are the 3 types of cell shape?
cocci
what is an example of a SPHERICAL cell shape?
bacilli
what is an example of a ROD SHAPED cell shape?
spirochetes
what is an example of a SPIRAL SHAPED cell shape?
motility
method of movement
bacteria flagellum, pili, slime threads
what are the 3 motility forms?
divide repeatedly, exponential growth
how do bacteria reproduce? (2)
binary fission
made of prokaryote asexual reproduction in which each daughter cell receives an identical copy of the parent's cell chromosome
endospore
dormant cell formed by certain bacteria that can survive very harsh conditions
pathogen
a disease causing organism or virus
invading tissues, destroying cells
how does bacteria cause illness? (2)
washing hands, careful preparation of food, attention to water
what are 3 ways human defend against bacterial diseases?
antibiotics
chemicals that slow or prevent the growth of microorganisms
virus
infect cells by inserting genes
dna or rna, surrounded by protein coat
what is the structure of a virus? (2)
entering a host cell and reproducing
what is the function of a virus?
bacteriophage
viruses that infect bacteria
lytic and lysogenic cycle
what 2 ways that viruses reproduce?
retrovirus
reverse the usual DNA to RNA
transcription
what is used for the life cycle of a retrovirus?
lytic cycle
phage attaches to the host cell & injects its dna
lysogenic cycle
virus injects its genes into the host
good hygiene, proper sanitation, take vaccines
how do humans defend against viral diseases? (3)
vaccine
deactivated varieties or small pieces of pathogen that stimulate immune system to defend against actual pathogen
protist
eukaryotes that are not animals, plants, or fungi, unicellular & free living
protozoan
animal like, consume other organisms
alga
enormous masses of algae, populations grow out of control in the presence of excess waste in water, depletes nutrients and oxygen to kill fish
eukaryotes, unicellular and freeliving, vary in structure and function
describe (3) characteristics that all protists have in common
consume and process food, respond to stimuli, excrete waters, reproduce
explain why certain unicellular protists can be considered the most complex of cells (3)
animal like, plant like, fungus like
identify 3 types of nutrition among protists
fungi
eukaryotic heterotrophs
hyphae, cell walls made of chitin
describe the basic structure of fungi (2)
hypha
tubular, hard wall of chitin, crosswalls may form compartments, multinucleate, grow at tips
mycelium
extensive, feeding web of hyphae
absorptive nutrition
hyphal tis release enzymes, enzymatic breakdfown of substrate, products diffuse back into hyphae
spore
haploid single cell with thick cell walls
in asexual reproduction, haploid spores reproduce by mitosis
explain the function of spores in fungal reproduction
lichen
symbiotic relationship between fugus and a photosynthetic organism
mycorrhizae
association of roots and fungus
mycorrhizae, lichen
what are 2 examples of symbiotic fungi?
ringworm, tapeworm
what are 2 fungal diseases of plants?
athlete's foot, thrush
what are 2 fungal diseases of humans?
eating mushrooms
what is a human use of fungi?
decomposer in ecosystem
what is the role of fungi in recycling organic matter?