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21 terms

CH 27 Summary of Acidosis and Alkalosis

CH. 27 - FLUID, ELECTROLYTE, AND ACID-BASE HOMEOSTASIS
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Acidosis
is a systemic arterial blood pH below 7.35
Acidosis
principal effect is depression of the central nervous system (CNS); depression of the nervous system is so severe that the individual becomes disoriented, then comatose, and may die
alkalosis
is a systemic arterial blood pH above 7.45
alkalosis
its principal effect is overexcitability of the CNS; nervousness, muscle spasms, and even convulsions and death
compensation
physiological response to an acid-base imbalance that acts to normalize arterial blood pH
complete compensation
physiological response to an acid-base imbalance that acts to normalize arterial blood pH
partial compensation
if systemic arterial blood pH is still lower than 7.35 or higher than 7.45
respiratory compensation
hyperventilation or hypoventilation can help bring blood pH back toward the normal range; occurs within minutes and reaches its maximum within hours
renal compensation
changes in secretion of H and reabsorption of HCO3 by the kidney tubules; may begin in minutes, but it takes days to reach maximum effectiveness
respiratory acidosis
Increased Pco2 (above 45 mmHg) and decreased pH (below 7.35) if there is not compensation
respiratory acidosis
caused by hypoventilation due to emphysema, pulmonary edema, trauma to respiratory center, airway obstruction, or dysfunction of muscles of respiration
respiratory acidosis
compensate by renal mechanism: increased excretion of H+; increased reabsorption of HCO3-. If compensation complete, pH will be within the normal range, but Pco2 will be high.
respiratory alkalosis
is decreased Pco2 (below 35 mm Hg) and increased pH (above 7.45) if there is no compensation
respiratory alkalosis
caused by hyperventilation due to oxygen deficiency, pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or severe anxiety
respiratory alkalosis
Is compensated by renal mechanism: decreased excretion of H+; decreased reabsorption of HCO3-. If compensation is complete, pH will be within the n ormal range, but PCO2 will be low.
metabolic acidosis
Is decreased HCO3- (below 22 mEq/liter) and decreased pH (below 7.35) if there is no compensation.
metabolic acidosis
Caused by loss of bicarbonate ions due to diarrhea, accumulation of acid (ketosis), renal dysfunction
metabolic acidosis
Compensated by respiratory mechanism: hyperventilation, which increases loss of CO2. If compensation is complete, pH will be within the normal range, but HCO3- will be low.
metabolic alkalosis
Is increased HCO3- (above 26 mEq/liter) and increased pH (above 7.45) if there is no compensation.
metabolic alkalosis
Loss of acid due to vomiting, gastric suctioning, or use of certain diuretics; excessive intake of alkaline drugs.
metabolic alkalosis
Compensated by respiratory mechanism: hypoventilation, which slows loss of CO2. If compensation is complete, pH will bei within the normal range but HCO3- will be high.