Civil War & Reconstruction Vocab
Terms in this set (56)
Formal withdrawal from a group; in US history, the formal withdrawal of 11 Southern states from the Union in 1860-1861, leading to the Civil War
A secret cooperative network that aided fugitive slaves in reaching sanctuary in the free states or in Canada in the years before the abolition of slavery in the United States
A black slave, had lived with his master for 5 years in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory. Backed by interested abolitionists, he sued for freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil. The ruling on the case was that He was a black slave and not a citizen, so he had no rights.
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
A loose union of independent states; name of government used by the southern states that seceded during the Civil War
An American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
1st real battle, Confederate victory, Washingtonian spectators gather to watch battle, Gen. Jackson stands as Stonewall and turns tide of battle in favor of Confederates, realization that war is not going to be quick and easy for either side
ulysses s grant
18th President of the US; he received a field promotion to lieutenant general in charge of all Union forces. He accepted General Robert E Lee's surrender at Appomattox Courthouse ending the Civil War
robert e lee
A General for the confederates, fought many battles. One of his main plans towards the end of the civil war was to wait for a new president to come into office to make peace with. Fought Peninsular Campaign, 2nd battle of Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville (with Jackson), and Gettysburg.
(AL) , Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
A military draft (During the American Civil War a wealthy man could avoid ~ by hiring a substitute to serve in his place)
(AL) 1863 (meade and lee), July 1-3, 1863, turning point in war, Union victory, most deadly battle
1865 constitutional amendment that abolished slavery
john wilkes booth
Abraham Lincoln's assasin
Southern whites who supported republican policy throught reconstruction
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
constitutional amendment that prohibits states from the depriving individuals of the rights and privileges of citizenship and requires states to provide due process and equal protection guarantees
1870 constitutional amendment that guaranteed voting rights regardless of race or previous condition of servitude
Northerners who moved into the south after the war.
ku klux klan
A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.
compromise of 1850
(MF) by Daniel Webster, California wanted to join the Union, but if California was accepted the North would gain control of the Senate, and Southerners threatened to secede from the Union. This compromise set up California joining the Union as a free state, New Mexico and Utah use popular sovereignty to decide the question of slavery, slave trading is banned in the nation's capital, The Fugitive Slave Law is passed, and the border between Texas and New Mexico was set.
Citizens' delegation of authority to their agents in government, with the ability to rescind that authority.
(c.1820-1913) American abolitionist who escaped slavery and assisted other enslaved Africans to escape; she is the most famous Underground Railroad conductor and is known as the Moses of her people.
harriet beecher stowe
Abolitionist, author of Uncle Tom's Cabin
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
(1856) a series of violent fights between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces in Kansas who had moved to Kansas to try to influence the decision of whether or not Kansas would a slave state or a free state.
A moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty.
1859 John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged
Abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War
general in the Confederate Army during the Civil War whose troops at the first Battle of Bull Run stood like a stone wall (1824-1863)
A general for northern command of the Army of the Potomac in 1861; nicknamed "Tardy George" because of his failure to move troops to Richmond; lost battle vs. General Lee near the Chesapeake Bay; Lincoln fired him twice.
(AL), 1862, the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation
new york city draft riots
July 1863 just after the Battle at Gettysburg. Mobs of Irish working-class men and women roamed the streets for four days until federal troops suppressed them. They loathed the idea of being drafted to fight a war on behalf of slaves who, once freed, would compete with them for jobs.
Nurse during the Civil War; started the American Red Cross
(1863) a speech given by Abraham Lincoln after the Battle of Gettysburg, in which he praised the bravery of Union soldiers and renewed his commitment to winning the Civil War; supported the ideals of self-government and human rights
battle at vicksburg
Last Confederate strong point on the Mississippi; captured by the Union army; key to North winning the war.
william t sherman
general whose march to sea caused destruction to the south, union general, led march to destroy all supplies and resoures, beginning of total warfare
A war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields.
election of 1864
Lincoln vs. McClellan, Lincoln wants to unite North and South, McClellan wants war to end if he's elected, citizens of North are sick of war so many vote for McClellan, Lincoln wins
appomattox court house
Famous as the site of the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant
Helped African Americans adjust to freedom; helped to provide services, acquire land and find work for fair wages -education
After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
lincolns reconstruction plan
The citizens of the South had to take an oath of loyalty, and once 10% of the state had taken the oath the state could rejoin the Union. It was known as the 10% Plan.
andrew johnson reconstruction plan
Majority of white men must swear oath of loyalty, new government must ban slavery and ratify 13th Amendment, Confederate officials may vote and hold office
election of 1866
Congressional election; radical republicans took control of Congress & started Congressional Reconstruction--> Congress could enact its own plan over Johnson's veto
Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War
election of 1868
Grant Elected; importance of black vote shown
A process led by the Radical Republicans that led to the usage of military force to protect blacks' rights.
panic of 1873
(USG) , Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver
- A clergyman and teacher who became the nation's first black senator in 1870. He completed the term of Jefferson Davis.
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Redeemer governments waged and agressive assault on African Americans.
election of 1876
Ended reconstruction because neither canidate had an electorial majority. Hayes was elected, and then ended reconstruction as he secretly promised