47 terms

Intro to psychology: Chapter 1

Midterm review
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Terms in this set (...)

Nature vs. Nuture
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
Psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Structuralism
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind
Functionalism
focuses on how our mental and behavioral processes function; how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish
Sigmund Freud
emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind and its effects on behavior (Id, Ego, Superego)
John Watson
Defined psychology as the science of behavior and demonstrated conditioned responses on a baby; psychology should be objective
B.F. Skinner
Emphasized the study of overt, observable behavior as the subject matter of scientific psychology
Humanistic Psychology
emphasizes the importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential, and the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied; Does not focus on early childhood memories
3 Levels of analysis
Biological, Psychological, Social Cultural
Biological Influences
genetic mutations, genetic propositions, natural selection of adaptive physiology and behaviors, genes responding to the environment
Psychological Influences
learned fears and other learned expectations, emotional responses, cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations
Social-Cultural Influences
presence of others, cultural societal and family expectations, peer and other group influences, compelling models (such as media)
Neuroscience
How the body and brain enable emotions
Evolutionary
How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes
Behavioral Genetics
How much our genes and our environments influence our individual differences
Psychodynamic
How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
Behavioral
How we learn is observable
Cognitive
How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information
Social-Cultural
How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
Psychological Perspectives
Neuroscience, Evolutionary, Behavioral Genetics, Psychodynamic, Behavioral, Cognitive and Social-Cultural
Intuition & Common Sense
obtained through intuition rather than from reasoning or observation
Overconfidence
total certainty or greater certainty than circumstances warrant
The Hindsight Bias
"I knew it all along" phenomenon; After learning about the outcome of an event, many people believe that they could have predicted that very outcome
Psychological Science
psychology helps us understand how people feel, think, and act
Psychological Research
theory and hypothesis
Theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors and events
Hypothesis
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Descriptive Research Methods
Case Study, Survey, Naturalistic Observations
Case Study
an observational technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles; often suggests direction for further study
Survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group; not perfect
Naturalistic Observations
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
Correlation Research
Scatterplots, Correlation Does Not Mean Causation, Illusory Correlation
Scatterplots
slope of the points depicts the direction, while the amount of scatter depicts the strength of the relationship (+1= perfect strong correlation; 0= No Correlation; -1= perfect negative correlation)
Correlation Does Not Mean Causation
Just because two things are correlated does not necessarily mean they are the causes of each other
Illusory Correlation
is a perception of a relationship where none exists; You are more likely to find it noteworthy if this situation happens, as opposed to when nothing happens
Experimentation
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable)
Random Assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between the groups
Experimental Group
the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
Control Group
the group that is NOT exposed to the the treatment
Double-Blind Procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are unaware about whether the participants have received the treatment or a placebo
Placebo Effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; ex: if in a new anxiety study, the control group receives a placebo (sugar pill), then report feeling less anxious
Independent Variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
Dependent Variable
- the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
Measures of Tendency
Mean, Median, Mode
Measures of Variation
Range, Standard Deviation
Reliability
the extent to which a test yields consistent results
Validity
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to