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AP Human Geography Unit 6

for Mrs. Watson's Class - 2011 feel free to correct me
STUDY
PLAY
agglomeration economics
the savings to an individual enterprise derived from locational association with a cluster of other similar economic activites, such as other factories or retail stores
break - of - bulk point
a location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another; a location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another
bulk gaining industry
an industry in which the final product weighs more or has a greater volume than the inputs
bulk reducing industry
an industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises of a lower volume than the inputs
carrier efficiency
the ratio of output to input for a given carrier
comparative advantage
the principle that an area produces the items for which it has the greatest ratio of advantage or the lease ratio of disadvantage in comparison to other areas, assuming free trade exists
complimentary trade
when two regions specifically satisfy each other's needs through exchange of raw materials and or finished goods
core region
regions that dominate trade, control the most advanced technologies, and have high levels of productivity within diversifies economies
cottage region
areas that are popular locations for recreational properties such as cottages or summer homes
cumulative causation
the spiral buildup of advantages that occurs in specific geographic settings as a result of the development of external economies, agglomeration effects, and localization economies
cultural convergence
the tendency for cultures to become more alike as they increasingly share technology and organizational structures in a modern world united by improved transportation and communication
deglomeration
the process of deconcentration; the location of industrial or other activities away from established agglomerations in response to growing costs of congregation and regulation
deindustrialization
the cumulative and sustained decline in the contribution of manufacturing to a national economy
dependency theory
the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former; poor states are impoverished and rich ones are enriched by the way poor states are integrated into the "world system"
developed country
a modern, industrialized country in which people are generally better educated and healthier and live longer than people in the developing countries
developing country
a country in which the society is less modern and less industrialized and in which inhabitants are generally poorer than they are in developing countries
distance decay
the effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction
economic sector
in modern economics, there are four main sectors of economic activity: primary, secondary, tetiary, and quatinary
economies of scale
cost advantages to manufacturers that accrue from high-volume production, since the average cost of production falls with increasing output
ecotourism
responsible travel that does not harm ecosystems or the well-being of local people
energy consumption
using energy; an indicator of development - MCDs tend to consume much more energy per capita then LCDs do
entrepot
a trading center,or simply a warehouse, where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying important duties , often at a profit
export processing zone
(EPZ) - designated areas of countries where governments create conditions conducive to export-orientated production
fixed costs
an activity cost (as of investment in land, plant, and equipment) that must be met without regard to level of output; an imput cost that is spatially constant
footloose industry
a descriptive term applied to manufacturing activities for which the cost of transporting material or product is not important in determining location of production; an industry or firm showing neither market nor orientation
fordism
the manufacturing economy and system derived from assembly-line mass production and the mass consumption of standardized goods
foreign direct investment
investment in the economies of LCDs by transnational corporations based in MDCs
friction of distance
the increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance
globalization
the trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world
gross domestic product
(GDP) - a measure of the total value of goods and services produced within a country during a year
gross national product
(GNP) - a measure of the total value of goods and services produced by the people and corporations in a year including goods and services produced within and outside the country
growth pole
an urban center with certain attributes that, if augmented by a measure of investment support, will stimulate regional economic development in its hinterland
high - technology corridors
areas designated by local government to benefit from lower taxes and high-technology infrastructure to provide high tech jobs for the local population
human development index
(HDI) - an aggregate index of development, which takes into account economic, social, and demographic factors, using GDP, literacy and education, and life expectancy
international division of labor
a division of work between rich and poor countries under which low-waged workers in th global south do assembly, manufacturing, and office work on contract to companies based in the global north
just in time production
seeks to reduce inventories for the production process by purchasing inputs for arrival just in time to use and producing output just in time to sell
labor intensive
production processes that employ a large amount of labor relative to the amount of capital equipment
least cost location
(theory) the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration
LCD / MDC
LCD - less developed country
MDC - more developed country
manufacturing export zones
a feature of economic development in peripheral countries whereby the host country establishes areas with favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements in order to attract foreign manufacturing operations
maquiladora
factories built by US companies in Mexico near the US porder to take advantage of much lower labor costs
market orientation
the tendency of economic activity to locate close to its market
multinational corporation
(MNC) - an organization that manufactures and markets products in many different countries and has multinational stock ownership and multinational management
multiplier effect
the direct, indirect, and induced consequences of change in a n activity. 1. In industrial agglomerations, the cumulative processes by which a given change (such as a new plant opening) sets in motion a sequence of further industrial employment and infrastructure growth. 2. In urban geography, the expected additional of non basic workers and dependents to a city's total employment and population that accompanies new basic sector employment.
neo-colonialism
the economic control MDCs are sometimes believed to have over LDCs
outsourcing
sending parts of a product out for production to another factory for cost savings
peripheral region
poor regions that are dependent in significant ways on the core and do not have as much control over their own affairs
postindustrial
a stage of economic development in which service activities become relatively more important than goods production; professional and technical employment supersedes employment in agriculture and manufacturing; and level of living is defined by the quality of services and amenities rather than by the quantity of goods available
purchasing power parity
(PPP) - a theory of long-term equilibrium exchange rates based on relative price levels of two countries founded on the law of one price, the idea that in absence of transaction costs and official barriers to trade, identical goods will have the same price in different markets when the prices are expressed in terms of one currency
resource orientation
tendency for an industry or other type of economic activity to locate close to its resources
semi-peripheral region
intermediary regions in terms of hierarchy of power between core regions and peripheral regions
specialized economic zones
(SEZ) - specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment
stages of growth
(model) - model that assumes that all countries follow a similar path to development advancing through five stages: traditional, preconditions of takeoff, takeoff, drive to maturity, high mass consumption
stages of growth: traditional
dominant economic activity is subsistence farming, rigid social structure, limited technology
stages of growth: preconditions of takeoff
new leadership, greater flexibility, openness, and diversification
stages of growth: takeoff
industrial revolution and sustained growth, urbanization increases, technology and mass production breakthroughs occur
stages of growth: drive to maturity
technology diffuses, industrial specialization occurs, international trade expands, population growth slows
stages of growth: high mass consumption
high incomes and widespread production of goods and services with the majority of the workers moving to the service sector
substitution principal
the tendency to substitute one factor of production for another in order to achieve optimum plant location
technology gap
the contrast between the technologies available in developed core regions and those present in peripheral areas of development
technology transfer
the diffusion to or acquisition by one culture or retention of the technology possessed by another, usually more developed, society
technopole
areas devoted to research, development, and sale of high technology products
threshold / range
(central place theory) - the maximum/minimum market possible/needed to support the supply of a product or service
time-space compression
a term associated with the work of David Harvey that refers to the social and psychological effects of living in a world in which time-space convergence has rapidly reached high levels of intensity
time-space convergence
refers to the greatly accelerated movement of goods, information, and ideas during the twentieth century, made possible by technological innovations in transportation and communications
transnational corporation
(TNC) - a company that conducts research, oparates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located
ubiquitous
present or existing everywhere
value added
the gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy
variable costs
a cost of enterprise and operation that varies either by output level or by location of the activity
world cities
cities most closely integrated into the global economic system because they are in the center of the flow of information and capital