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AP Euro Wars of Religion
Terms in this set (46)
Habsburg- Valois Wars
France vs. Habsburgs. France tried keeping GERMANY DIVIDED. Led to slow unification of German states.
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
Ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars giving Spain dominance over France in Italy, 1559
king of Spain and Portugal and husband of Mary I, supported the counterreformation and sent the Spanish Armada to invade England
Spanish imperial palace built by Philip II 1563-1584, combining a monastery, the tomb of Spanish Habsburgs, and a royal residence
Battle of Lepanto
Turkish sea power was destroyed in 1571 by a league of Christian nations organized by the Pope
(1566-79) Caused for religious reasons; Protestant Region in Northern Spanish Netherlands/Dutch Republic; they revolted against Spanish authority for political and religious independence from Spain
William of Orange
Ruler of the Netherlands who led a revolt for independence against Hapsburg Philip II of Spain.
United Provinces of the Netherlands
formed in 1581-Dutch Republic-received aid from Elizabeth I-major blow to Philip's goal of maintaining Catholicism throughout his empire
Seventeen provinces, (Belgium, Modern Netherlands, Luxemborg) which are basically the Low Countries. They are called low be cause they are below sea level, the are surrounded by dikes and wind mills.
daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon who was Queen of England from 1553 to 1558, persecuted Protestants; BLOODY MARY
This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
the great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588, failed
French Civil Wars
9 wars in last half of 16th century-power struggle between 3 noble families for Crown after death of Henry II
Catherine de Medici
wife of Henry II, influenced her sons after the end of there father's rein. She placed an alliance with the ultra-Catholics (the militant Catholics), which was led by the second most powerful family in France, The Guise Family. She permitted the Guise Family their own independent army,which they would use to take out the other religions residing within the French Borders. This led to the civil wars in France and also the St. Bartholome's Day Massacre.
St. Bartholomew Day Massacre
Mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvinists) in Paris, on Saint Bartholomew's Day, 1572.
War of the Three Henrys
This was the last of the wars that occurred over the religious differences in France, between the Catholics (Henry III of France and Henry of Guise) and Protestants (Henry IV)
first Bourbon king-most important kings in French history-rise to power ended French Civil Wars-gradual course to absolutism-politique-converted to Catholicism to gain loyalty of Paris
A ruler who suppresses his or her religious designs for his or her kingdom in favor of political expediency. Examples: Elizabeth I (England), Henry IV (France).
Edict of Nantes
1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants
Thirty Years' War
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
The first phase of the Thirty Years' War which culminated in the Catholic victory at the Battle of White Mountain.
Defenestration of Prague
The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.
The second phase of the Thirty Years' War in which the Catholic imperial army led by Albert of Wallenstein won a series of major victories against the Protestants.
Albrecht von Wallenstein
mercenary general who was paid by the emperor to fight for the HRE, he won many important battles against the Protestants.
Edict of Restitution
Imperial law that prohibited all Calvinist worship and restored Catholic ownership of land stolen by the Protestant Princes of the Reformation.
The third phase of the Thirty Years' War marked by Sweden's entrance into the war under King Gustavus Adolphus; during this phase, the Protestants began to defeat the Catholics on many fronts.
joins Thirty Years' War in 1629, king of Sweden, Protestant leader, stands up for fellow Protestants, military genius, wins a lot for Protestant team; supported by Richelieu, who wants to end Hapsburg power; killed in 1632 at battle of Luetzen
The fourth and final phase of the Thirty Years' War marked by France's entrance into the war on the side of the Protestants; this gave the Protestants the support needed to defeat the Catholics.
This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended Thirty Years' War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-either Protestant or Catholic
English Civil War
This was the revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished
the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1925 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625
son of James I who was King of England and Scotland and Ireland
"Divine Right" of kings
the belief that the authority of kings comes directly from God
In the English Civil War (1642-1647), these were the troops loyal to Charles II. Their opponents were the Roundheads, loyal to Parliament and Oliver Cromwell.
A group consisting of puritans, country land owners, and town based manufacturers, led by Oliver Cromwell; fought against the Cavaliers during the English civil war
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)
New Model Army
The disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English civil war.
elements of New Model Army removed all non-Puritans and Presbyterians form Parliament leaving Rump parliament
This was the Parliament after Oliver Cromwell dismissed the Cavaliers
radical religious revolutionaries-sought social and political reforms, a more egalitarian (equal) society.
denied Parliament's authority and rejected private ownership of land
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
the time between two reigns, governments, etc.
This was the name of the military dictatorship that England took on during the reign of Oliver Cromwell
King of England and Scotland and Ireland during the Restoration (1630-1685)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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