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most common cause is diabetes mellitus, in which the blood glucose level may rise far above normal because insulin activity is deficient

urinary incontinence

lack of voluntary control over micturition

infants and children under 2-3 years old

incontinence is normal because neurons to the external urethral sphincter muscle are not completely developed; voiding occurs whenever the urinary bladder is sufficiently distended to stimulate the micturition reflex

Stress incontinence

most common type of incontinence in young and middleaged females, and results from weakness of the deep muscles of the pelvic floor

Urge incontinence

most common in older people and is characterized by an abrupt and intense urge to urinate followed by an involuntary loss of urine

Overflow incontinence

involuntary leakage of small amounts of urine caused by some type of blockage or weak contractions of the musculature of the urinary bladder

Functional incontinence

urine loss resulting from the inability to get to a toilet facility in time as a result of conditions such as stroke, severe arthritis, and Alzheimer disease

renal calculi

crystals of salts present in urine occasionally precipitate and solidify into insoluble stones

urinary tract infection (UTI)

describe either an infection of a part of the urinary system or the presence of large numbers of microbes in urine


inflammation of the kidney that involves the glomeruli

Nephrotic syndrome

characterized by proteinuria (protein in the urine) and hyperlipidemia (high blood levels of cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides)

acute renal failure (ARF)

kidneys abruptly stop working entirely (or almost entirely

Chronic renal failure (CRF)

progressive and usually irreversible decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD)

the kidney tubules become riddled with hundreds or thousands of cysts (fluid-filled cavities)

urinary bladder cancer

blood in the urine is a primary sign of the disease. Less often, people experience painful and/or frequent urination


presence of excessive albumin in the urine; indicates an increase in the permeability of filtration membranes due to injury or disease, increased blood pressure, or irritation of kidney cells by substances such as bacterial toxins, ether, or heavy metals


presence of red blood cells in the urine; generally indicates a pathological condition


high levels of ketone bodies in urine; may indicate diabetes mellitus, anorexia, starvation, or simply too little carbohydrate in the diet


red blood cells are destroyed by macrophages, the globin portion of hemoglobin is split off and the heme is converted to biliverdin; biliverdin is converted to bilirubin; is an above-normal level of bilirubin in urine


presence of urobilinogen (breakdown product of hemoglobin) in urine; elevated urobilinogen may be due to hemolytic or pernicious anemia, infectious hepatitis, biliary obstruction, jaundice, cirrhosis, congestive heart failure, or infectious mononucleosis


tiny masses of material that have hardened and assumed the shape of the lumen of the tubule in which they formed


number and type of bacteria vary with specific infections in the urinary tract

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