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A.P.U.S.H. Periods 3 & 4
Terms in this set (55)
plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown
French and Indian War
(1754-1763) War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won.
Treaty of Paris 1763
Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada, land east of the Mississippi, to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain
American intellectual, inventor, and politician He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution.
Writs of Assistance
Allowed England to search colonists' ships and other private property without an individual warrant
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
A 1763 conflict between Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great Lakes area.
(1764) British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
(1765) Required colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops. Many colonists saw it as an encroachment on their rights.
1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.
1766: , after parliament repealed the Stamp Act, the prime minister passed this act that confirmed parliamentary authority over the colonies "in all cases whatsoever", but the Americans paid little attention to this.
American Revolutionary leader and patriot, Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence
Stamp Act Congress
1765 Organization of colonies that protested taxes
(1767) A set of laws passed by Parliament after Stamp Act crisis, that stated new taxes would be applied only to imported goods, paid at the port of entry. (glass, tea, paper, lead, etc.)
British colonial policy during the reigns of George I and George II. Relaxed supervision of internal colonial affairs by royal bureacrats contributed significantly to the rise of American self government
1770, street clash between townspeople and Irish soldiers ordered to guard British custom houses.
1773 act which eliminated import tariffs on tea entering England and allowed the British East India Company to sell directly to consumers rather than through merchants. Led to the Boston Tea Party.
Boston Tea Party
A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor.
A series of laws set up by Parliament to punish Massachusetts for its protests against the British
First Continental Congress
1774; response to Intolerable Acts; 55 men from 12 colonies meet on Philadelphia; called for complete halt in trade with Britain; important step towards independence.
Second Continental Congress
12 delegates meet in Philadelphia to express their growing dissatisfaction with King George and his lack of response to the Declaration of Rights
American Revolutionary War
The war for American independence from Britain. The fighting began with the Battle of Lexington and Concord in 1775, and lasted through the Battle of Yorktown in 1781.
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence.
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won.
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)
Battle of Saratoga
American victory over British troops in 1777 that was a turning point in the American Revolution.
Treaty of Paris 1783
1783 Februrary 3; American delegates Franklin, Adams, John Jays; they were instructed to follow the lead of France; John Jay makes side treaty with England; Independence of the US End of Loyalist persecution; colonies still had to repay its debt to England
Land Ordinance of 1787
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
A 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes
A meeting in Philadelphia in 1787 that produced a new constitution
Constitution of the United States
The U.S. Constitution established America's national government and fundamental laws, and guaranteed certain basic rights for its citizens. It was signed on September 17, 1787, by delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, presided over by George Washington. Under America's first governing document, the Articles of Confederation, the national government was weak and states operated like independent countries. At the 1787 convention, delegates devised a plan for a stronger federal government with three branches--executive, legislative and judicial--along with a system of checks and balances to ensure no single branch would have too much power. The Bill of Rights--10 amendments guaranteeing basic individual protections such as freedom of speech and religion--became part of the Constitution in 1791. To date, there have been a total of 27 constitutional amendments.
A compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for enumeration purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives.
Conneticut/ Great Compromise
House of Representatives: based on population; Senate: every state has two reps
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
Anti-Federalists rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states
A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail.
Bill of Rights
Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
Judiciary Act of 1789
A law that established the federal court system and the number of Supreme Court justices and that provided for the appeal of certain state court decisions to the federal courts
1776: a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Decleration of independence
A U.S. document adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, during the Revolutionary War, to announce the separation of the American colonies from Britain. Written predominately by Thomas Jefferson, it asserted "that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
An early political party headed by Thomas Jefferson; stood for less centralized government
1794 - It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain. It dealt with the Northwest posts and trade on the Mississippi River. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks on neutral American ships. It was particularly unpopular with France, because the U.S. also accepted the British restrictions on the rights of neutrals.
(GW) In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans.
Washington's Farewell Address
-Washington retired from office after his 2nd term in 1797. His Farewell Address is actually a letter. In it he reacted sharply to Republicans, by warning against international entanglements (more specifically, denouncing against the Republicans that had been conspiring with the French to frustrate the Federalist diplomatic program.and against the dangers of permanent alliances with foreign nations. (Ex. The Jay Treaty)Warned against sectionalism (Ex: put down the Whiskey Rebellion). Temporary alliances wouldn't be quite as dangerous, but they should be made only in "extraordinary emergencies". He also spoke against partisan bitterness. (Federalist and Republican parties) 1775-1825
(1797-1801) The 11th Amendment is added to the Constitution in 1798. Washington D.C. becomes America's official capitol in 1800., He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself
John Adam's wife, she appealed to her husband to protect the rights of women
1798 - A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters "X, Y and Z" for the names of the three French agents in his report to Congress.
- Undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800. The French began to seize American ships trading with their British enemies and refused to receive a new United States minister when he arrived in Paris in December 1796.
Alien and Sedition Acts
(1798) laws passed by a Federalist-dominated Congress aimed at protecting the government from treasonous ideas, actions, and people
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution."
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