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Colonial Quiz #2 for October 1st
Terms in this set (63)
an economic system where the government controlled trade. Though the government (mother country) could control most all foreign trade it did not control local trade between colonies and regions.
Things shipped into a country or colony. A country or colony must pay a price for these usually because it cannot grow or produce these things on its own.
Class System - How did the Colonial Class System differ from England's?
1. 3/4 of the system was middle class, 2. there was no royalty 3. you can work your way up the social class ladder but in England it was the opposite
Navigation Acts - 4 types of restrictions placed on colonial trade
There were four basic categories of navigation acts but actually 29 specific acts or laws:
1. foreign ships were barred from the colonies
2. colonial imports and exports had to be carried only by British or Colonial ships
3. Products from other European countries had to go through British ports and be transferred to British ships (extra taxes collected for Britian)
4. Certain "enumerated" colonies products could be only shipped with British Empire. In 1660 these included sugar, tobacco, cotton, indigo, and ginger. Later, rice, molasses, furs, copper,and naval stores (pitch, tar, turpentine) were also enumerated. this allowed Britian to buy these products cheaply from the colonists and resale to Europe at a much higher price.
Also, manufactured goods could only be purchased from England
Things that are shipped out of a country or colony. The country or colony gets paid to send these products to other countries or colonies.
Regional Colonial Economy/Resources
Knowing what each region's source of income was and what they sold to Europe or other colonies.
New England Resources
Timber and fish which were their exports. They also thrived from Shipping and Building (and whaling). the soil was thin there so cash crops weren't an option. Fur was not an option after fur trade dwindled in the mid 1600's.
Middle Colonies Resources
They had rich soil which was great for crops and provided all the needs for the region. they sold wheat, bread, flour outside the region. (flour especially for the slave-holding west indies). Trade thrived as artisans skills were in demand. producing iron and milling flour were other routes to business success. they had the most diverse population, several nationalities and religion which lead to the diverse demand for artisan skills.
Southern Colonies Resources
Their soil and climate were ideal for cash crops and they sold indigo, rice, and tobacco outside the region. 1. Virginia & Maryland - soil and climate ideal for tobacco and became the mainstay of these states economies, 2. North Carolina - also tobacco, 3. South Carolina - rice production began in the 1690's in the flat low coastal areas. 4. Eliza Lucas introduced indigo in the 1740's which grows on higher ground and it became another cash export crop. 5. Georgia - mostly frontier area, grounded in subsistence farming
A three cornered system of trade that allowed the mother country to get imports and exports
Favorable Balance of Trade
When a country or colony has more exports than imports- the navigation acts ensured this for England by forcing low prices of imports from the colonies and charging higher prices for its manufactured goods (exports) the colonies were forced to buy.
Indentured Servants - description
This group provided a lot of the needed labor in the 1600's
a. Came freely for economic opportunity
b. 4 to 7 years of labor for food, clothing, shelter and eventually 50 acres and tools (if farmers)
c. eventual "fresh start"
Convicts - Description
A. forced to come to the colonies and had to sign for some years of service
b. some were free upon arrival/most indentured
c. eventual "fresh start"
Free Immigrants - Description
a. Came willingly
b. freet to begin their new life in whatever they chose (freedom of choice)
c. mostly settled to work in New England and middle colonies
d. some received a headright to settle in a particular colony such as Virginia.
Slaves - Description
the majority of slaves worked in the southern colonies due to the growing plantation system (cash crops) which required great amounts of labor.
a. forced here - ripped from their own culture and family
b. no rights, no property, low skill
c. no future
Three levels of Class System
B. Middle Class
C. Lower Class
Gentry - Description
Upperclass that included royal officials, wealthy planters, merchants, successful attorneys and some ministers
Middle Class - Description
Consisted of farmers who owned their own land, skilled craft persons, some trades people, small manufacturers. 3/4 of population was middle class
Lower Class - Description
consisted of indentured hands and slaves
What created success in the colonies
A. Colonial life favored individuals who were ambitious, hardworking and independent thinkers
B. The Great Awakening
c. The Americas had abundant natural resources and land (although it had been taken from native americans) which was used both for producing products but exporting to other countries
d. Success of the economy of the colonies created higher populations and therefore more demand for goods and services.
Description of the Great Awakening
A. religious movement
b. appealed to emotions and reflection
C. Edwards and Whitefield were powerful preachers whose evangelistic style drew huge crowds
d. encouraged one to examine their spiritual self and their relationships with God
e. Seek out others who believe as you do
f. freedom in religion spilled over to freedom in other areas such as government and the economy. This open mindedness encouraged inventions in the business world and fewer restrictions meant more opportunities in business as well
Balance of Trade and Movement of Goods
How does Mercantilism work?
a. Government passes laws to control trade to benefit mother country, not individuals - 1. The government in England decided what colonists would be paid for goods they grew or made, 2. England decided where goods would be shipped. 3. England also decided what goods would be shipped to the colonies. 4. England decided how much those goods would cost when they go there, 5. Colonists had no say in these decisions
How does Mercantilism work - part 2
b. Government wants to grow their money supply to continue their wars and grow more powerful at the expense of their colonies. 1. the control allows England to have the favorable balance of trade (exporting/selling at a high price more than importing/buying at a low price)
Free Trade / Capitalism
a. An economic system that developed after the Revolutionary War. b. still in use today, c. insists on competition to avoid price fixing
The difference between mercantilism and Free trade/capitalism
has everything to do with who controls the price and the destination of both imports and exports. In free trade/capitalism, control is mostly in the hands of the trader (businessperson). In mercantilism, control is totally in the hands of the government or royalty.
The first settlers in British North America in the early 1600's nearly starved to death at Jamestown and Plymouth during their first winters. How had that changed by 1775?
By the time of the American Revolution in 1775 the colonial economy was booming and the white colonial standard of living was among the highest in the world.
The colonies were originally intended as sources for what?
precious metals like gold and silver for the mother nations. Only Central and South America (which were Spanish colonies) had previously provided these riches.
Study graph on how colony/Great Britian economic system worked
Where did North Americas profits need to come from since gold and silver were shipped to mother country?
North American profits needed to come from trade in other natural resources such as cash crops, raw materials (fur, timber, etc.)
Why were the Navigation Acts important to the British Empire?
England wanted the colonial trade to benefit the mother country first, then the colonies in second place. Only then could other foreign nations enter the trade pictures (like other European countries). Therefore the Navigation Acts were enacted beginning in 1650.
How did the Navigation Acts lead to revolutionary unrest around the 1760's?
Until the 1760's the British restrictions on trade from the Navigation acts weren't troublesome. Many things weren't enumerated (corn, fish, wheat) so they could be sold to any European country that wanted them. Also, many navigation acts laws weren't strongly enforced either because of smuggling or bribing. When Britian tried to heavily enforce the navigation acts (searching people's homes for smuggled goods) and impose stricter acts around the 1760's, unrest in the colonies began simmering.
90% of all people who lived in English colonies earned a living from what activity?
Farming - farmers used hand tools (ax, hoe, scythe, sickle spade) and used plows that were pulled by horses or oxen. They didn't use fertilizers and when the soil was worn out from planting the same crop year after year they would simply plow a new plot of land. German immigrants were the first to rotate their crops and add fertilizers
People who did not farm were often what?
skilled craftsmen/artisans such as blacksmiths, shoemakers, tanners, etc.
What was the most important crop during the early colonial times and who introduced it to the colonists?
Corn - Indians showed the colonists how to plant it and grind kernels into cornmeal
What crop was grown using irrigation methods in South Carolina and Georgia?
Clothing manufacturers in England bought large quantities of a blue dye that was made from what plant grown in the Southern colonies?
Which crop did some settlers begin to grow in the mid 1700's that was used for making rope?
Strips of wood were placed edge to edge and fastened together to make barrels. They were also used to make the sides of wooden ships. What were these strips of wood called?
What products were produced from the pine trees that grew in the great forests of the Appalachain Mountains?
Tar and Pitch
How was tar used?
Tar was applied to wood and ropes to keep them from rotting
How was pitch used?
Pitch was used to keep the wooden ships watertight
What term was given to products like tar and pitch that were used on ships?
The leather used by saddlers and harness makers came from what product?
In which region was colonial fishing and shipbuilding industry centered?
New England colonies
Where did trappers earn a living
Which product was used by colonists to construct houses?
Indigo was the major product produced in how many colonies?
What product was made from molasses?
Were colonial farmers located on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, the Appalachian Mountains or both?
When did a busy trade system develop BETWEEN the colonial regions?
How were most goods shipped/delivered in between the colonial regions in the 1700's?
By ships called schooners, brigs, and sloops that went up and down the Atlantic coast from Maine to Georgia
Most villages and towns had weekly trade fairs to provide colonists with needed goods
Who were things paid for at trade fairs and/or between colonists?
Coins (money) was not in common use so trading was done by "barter" which means exchanging one good for another. For example - I'll give you a loaf of bread for a bushel of corn.
What were peddlers?
Peddlers distributed goods to outlying areas on horseback. they carried products/goods on their backs and also spread news to the most distant corners of the colonies.
Who was among the first to call for Revolution?
Colonial Businessmen. the continued restrictions on trade became one of the main reasons for the Revolutionary War in 1775
Study map of trade routes
When only one government or business controls trade and therefore prices for a certain product or products. The Navigation acts created a monopoly for trade between the colonies and England. Since the colonies could only legally trade with England they had to buy/sell at prices established by England.
Name three leading American trading centers
Boston, New York, Philadelphia
A three-way trade developed between which regions?
The colonies, West Indies, and African gold coast
In the triangular trade, what went from New England to African gold coast?
Flour, tar, sugar, iron bars (used as money in Africa), rum
In the triangular trade, what went from Africa to the West Indies?
Slaves, spices, gold dust were sold in the West Indies for profit. Bills of Exchange were granted by the West Indies to use this profit with England
In the triangular trade, what went from the West Indies to New England?
molasses and sugar that were produced in the West Indies and bills of exchange from the profits from the sale of spices and gold dust
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