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130 terms

Intro Psych Unit 3

STUDY
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abnormal behavior
behavior that causes people to experience distress and prevents them from functioning in their daily lives
medical perspective
the perspective that suggests that when an individual displays symptoms of abnormal behavior, the root cause will be found in a physical examination of the individual, which may reveal a hormonal imbalance, a chemical deficiency, or a brain injury
psychoanalytic perspective
the perspective that suggests that abnormal behavior stems from childhood conflicts over opposing wishes regarding sex and aggression
behavioral perspective
the perspective that looks at the behavior itself as the problem
cognitive perspective
the perspective that suggests that people's thoughts and beliefs are a central component of abnormal behavior
humanistic perspective
the perspective that emphasizes the responsibility people have for their own behavior, even when such behavior is abnormal
sociocultural perspective
the perspective that assumes that people's behavior--both normal and abnormal--is shaped by the kind of family group, society , and culture in which they live
diagnostic and statistical manual
a system, devised by the american psychiatric association, used by most professionals to diagnose and classify abnormal behavior
axis I (clinical disorders)
disorders that produce distress and impair functioning
axis II (personality disorders and mental retardation)
enduring, rigid behavior patterns
axis III (general medical conditions)
physical disorders that may be related to psychological disorders
axis IV (psychosocial and environmental problems)
problems in a person's life such as stressors or life events that may affect the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of psychological disorders
axis V (global assessment of functioning)
overall level of mental, social, occupational, and leisure functioning
anxiety disorders
problems in which anxiety impedes daily functioning

generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder
somatoform disorders
psychological difficulties displayed through physical problems

hypochondriasis, conversion disorder
dissociative disorders
the splitting apart of crucial parts of personality that are usually integrated

dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality), dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue
mood disorders
emotions of depression or euphoria that are so strong they intrude on everyday living

major depression, bipolar disorder
schizophrenia and psychotic disorders
declines in functioning, though and language disturbances, perception disorders, emotional disturbances, and withdrawal from others

disorganized, paranoid, catatonic, undifferentiated, residual
personality disorders
problems that create little personal distress but that lead to an inability to function as a normal member of society

antisocial (sociopathic) personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder
sexual disorders
problems related to sexual arousal from unusual objects or problems related to functioning

paraphilia, sexual dysfunction
substance-related disorders
problems related to drug dependence and abuse

alcohol, cocaine, hallucinogens, marijuana
agoraphobia
fear of places where help might not be available in case of emergency
specific phobias
fear of specific objects, places, or situations
natural environment type
fear of events or situations in the natural environment (storms, heights, or water)
animal type
fear of specific animals or insects (dogs, cats, or spiders)
situational type
fear of public transportation, tunnels, bridges, elevators, flying, or driving
blood injection - injury type
fear of blood, injury, injections (person panics when viewing a child's scraped knee)
social phobia
fear of being judged or embarrassed by others
phobias
intense, irrational fears of specific objects or situations
panic disorder
anxiety disorder that takes the form of panic attacks lasting from a few seconds to as long as several hours
generalized anxiety disorder
the experience of long-term, persistent anxiety and worry
obsessive-compulsive disorder
a disorder characterized by obsessions or compulsions
obsession
a persistent, unwanted thought or idea that keeps recurring
compulsion
an irresistible urge to repeatedly carry out some act that seems strange and unreasonable
posttraumatic stress disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by vivid flashbacks or dreams of a traumatic event
hypochondriasis
a disorder in which people have a constant fear of illness and a preoccupation with their health
conversion disorder
a major somatoform disorder that involves an actual physical disturbance, such as the inability to use a sensory organ or the complete or partial inability to move an arm or leg
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
a disorder in which a person displays characteristics of two or more distinct personalities
dissociative amnesia
a disorder in which a significant, selective memory loss occurs
dissociative fugue
a form of amnesia in which the individual leaves home and sometimes assumes a new identity
major depression
a severe form of depression that interferes with concentration, decision making, and sociability
mania
an extended state of intense, wild elation
bipolar disorder
a disorder in which a person alternates between periods of euphoric feelings of mania and periods of depression
schizophrenia
a class of disorders in which severe distortion of reality occurs
disorganized (hebephrenic) schizophrenia
inappropriate laughter and giggling, silliness, incoherent speech, infantile behavior, strange and sometimes obscene behavior
paranoid schizophrenia
delusions and hallucinations of persecution or greatness, loss of judgment, erratic and unpredictable behavior
catatonic schizophrenia
major disturbances in movement; in some phases, loss of all motion, with patient frozen into a single position, remaining that way for hours and sometimes even days; in other phases, hyperactivity and wild, sometimes violent, movement
undifferentiated schizophrenia
variable mixture of major symptoms of schizophrenia; classification used for patients who cannot be typed into any of the more specific categories
residual schizophrenia
minor signs of schizophrenia after a more serious episode
process schizophrenia
symptoms develop slowly and subtly. there may be a gradual withdrawal from the world, excessive daydreaming, and a blunting of emotion, until eventually the disorder reaches the point where others cannot overlook it
harder to treat
reactive schizophrenia
onset of symptoms is sudden and conspicuous.
easier to treat.
type I schizophrenia
positive symptom schizophrenia.
presence of disordered behavior such as hallucinations, delusions, and emotional extremes
type II schizophrenia
negative symptom schizophrenia
absence or loss of normal functioning, such as social withdrawal or blunted emotions
predisposition model of schizophrenia
individuals may inherit a genetic tendency or an inborn sensitivity to the disorder that makes them particularly vulnerable to stressful factors in the environment, such as social rejection or dysfunctional family communication patterns
antisocial personality disorder (sociopathic personality)
a disorder in which individuals show no regard for the moral and ethical rules of society or the rights of others
borderline personality disorder
a disorder in which individuals have difficulty developing a secure sense of who they are, and base their identity on personal relationships
narcissistic personality disorder
a personality disturbance characterized by an exaggerated sense of self-importance
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
a disorder marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration, and a great deal of inappropriate activity
autism
a severe developmental disability that impairs children's ability to communicate and relate to others
organic mental disorders
problems that have a purely biological basis, such as alzheimer's disease and some types of mental retardation
psychotherapy
treatment in which a trained professional - a therapist - uses psychological techniques to help a person overcome psychological difficulties and disorders, resolve problems in living, or bring about personal growth
biomedical therapy
therapy that relies on drugs and other medial procedures to improve psychological functioning
clinical psychologists
psychologists with a Ph.D. or Psy.D. who have also completed a postgraduate internship. They specialize in assessment and treatment of psychological difficulties.
counseling psychologists
psychologists with a Ph.D. or Ed.D. who typically treat day-to-day adjustment problems, often in a university mental health clinic
psychiatrists
M.D.s with postgraduate training in abnormal behavior. Because they can prescribe medication, they often treat the most severe disorders
psychoanalysts
either M.D.s or psychologists who specialize in psychoanalysis, the treatment technique first developed by Freud
psychodynamic therapy
therapy that seeks to bring unresolved past conflicts and unacceptable impulses from the unconscious into the conscious, where patients may deal with the problems more effectively
psychoanalysis
freudian psychotherapy in whcih the goal is to release hidden unconscious thoughts and feelings in order to reduce their power in controlling behavior
transference
the transfer of feelings to a psychoanalyst of love or anger that had been originally directed to a patient's parents or other authority figures
behavioral treatment approaches
treatment approaches that build on the basic processes of learning, such as reinforcement and extinction, and assume that normal and abnormal behavior are both learned
aversive conditioning
a form of therapy that reduces the frequency of undesired behavior by pairing an aversive, unpleasant stimulus with undesired behavior
systematic desensitization
a behavioral technique in which gradual exposure to an anxiety-producing stimulus is paired with relaxation to extinguish the response of anxiety
exposure
a behavioral treatment for anxiety in which people are confronted, either suddenly or gradually, with a stimulus that they fear
dialectical behavior therapy
a form of treatment in which the focus is on getting people to accept who they are, regardless of whether it matches their ideal
cognitive treatment approaches
treatment approaches that teach people to think in more adaptive ways by changing their dysfunctional cognitions about the world and themselves
cognitive-behavioral approach
a treatment approach that incorporates basic principles of learning to change the way people think
rational-emotive behavior therapy
a form of therapy that attempts to restructure a person's belief system into a more realistic, rational, and logical set of views by challenging dysfunctional beliefs that maintain irrational behavior
humanistic therapy
therapy in which the underlying rationale is that people have control of their behavior, can make choices about their lives, and are essentially responsible for solving their own problems
person-centered therapy
therapy in which the goal is to reach one's potential for self-actualization
interpersonal therapy (IPT)
short-term therapy that focuses on the context of current social relationships
group therapy
therapy in which people meet in a group with a therapist to discuss problems
family therapy
an approach that focuses on the family and its dynamics
spontaneous remission
recovery without treatment
drug therapy
control of psychological disorders through the use of drugs
antipsychotic drugs
drugs that temporarily reduce symptoms such as agitation, hallucinations, and delusions
antidepressant drugs
medications that improve a severely depressed patient's mood and feeling of well-being
mood stabilizers
drugs that prevent manic episodes of bipolar disorder
antianxiety drugs
drugs that can reduce the level of anxiety a person experiences, essentially by reducing excitability and increasing feelings of well-being
electroconvulsive therapy (ect)
a procedure used in the treatment of severe depression in which an electric current of 70 to 150 volts is briefly administered to a patient's head
transcranial magnetic stimulation (tms)
a depression treatment in which a precise magnetic pulse is directed to a specific area of the brain
psychosurgery
brain surgery once used to reduce the symptoms of mental disorder, but rarely used today
community psychology
a branch of psychology that focuses on the prevention and minimization of psychological disorders in the community
deinstitutionalization
the transfer of former mental patients from institutions to the community
social psychology
the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others
attitudes
evaluations of a particular person, behavior, belief, or concept
central route processing
message interpretation characterized by thoughtful consideration of the issues and arguments used to persuade
peripheral route processing
message interpretation characterized by consideration of the source and related general information rather than of the message itself
cognitive dissonance
the conflict that occurs when a person holds two contradictory attitudes or thoughts (referred to as cognitions)
social cognition
the cognitive processes by which people understand and make sense of themselves and others
schemas
sets of cognitions about people and social experiences
central traits
the major traits considered in forming impressions of others
attribution theory
the theory of personality that seeks to explain how we decide, on the basis of samples of an individual's behavior, what the specific causes of that person's behavior are
situational causes (of behavior)
perceived causes of behavior that are based on environmental factors
dispositional causes (of behavior)
perceived causes of behavior that are based on internal traits or personality factors
halo effect
a phenomenon in which an initial understanding that a person has positive traits is used to infer other uniformly positive characteristics
assumed similarity bias
the tendency to think of people as being similar to oneself, even when meeting them for the first time
self-serving bias
the tendency to attribute personal success to personal factors (skill, ability, or effort) and to attribute failure to factors outside oneself
fundamental attribution error
a tendency to overattribute others' behavior to dispositional causes and the corresponding minimization of the importance of situational causes
social influence
the process by which the actions of an individual or group affect the behavior of others
group
two or more people who interact with each other, perceive themselves as part of a group, and are interdependent
conformity
a change in behavior or attitudes brought about by a desire to follow the beliefs or standards of other people
status
the social rank held within a group
social supporter
a group member whose dissenting views make nonconformity to the group easier
groupthink
a type of thinking in which group members share such a strong motivation to achieve consensus that they lose the ability to critically evaluate alternative points of view
compliance
behavior that occurs in response to direct social pressure
industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology
the branch of psychology focusing on work and job related issues, including worker motivation, satisfaction, safety, and productivity
obedience
a change in behavior in response to the commands of others
stereotype
a set of generalized beliefs and expectations about a particular group and its members
prejudice
a negative (or positive) evaluation of a particular group and its members
discrimination
behavior directed toward individuals on the basis of their membership in a particular group
social neuroscience
the subfield of social psychology that seeks to identify the neural basis of social behavior
interpersonal attraction (or close relationship)
positive feelings for others; liking and loving
reciprocity of liking effect
a tendency to like those who like us
passionate (or romantic) love
a state of intense absorption in someone that includes intense physiological arousal, psychological interest, and caring for the needs of another
companionate love
the strong affection we have for those with whom our lives are deeply involved
aggression
the intentional injury of, or harm to, another person
catharsis
the process of discharging built-up aggressive energy
prosocial behavior
helping behavior
diffusion of responsibility
the tendency for people to feel that responsibility for acting is shared, or diffused, among those present
altruism
helping behavior that is beneficial to others but clearly requires self-sacrifice