Standard Grade Biology
Terms in this set (62)
What is the need for food?
What elements are present in carbohydrates and fats
What elements are present in proteins?
How are carbohydrates stored in plants and animals?
Carbohydrates are stored as starch in plants and glycogen is animals in the human liver
What is the need for digestion?
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble molecules into small soluble molecules.These can then be absorbed through the wall of the small intestines into the blood stream.
What is the end product for carbohydrates?
What is the end product for fats?
Glycorol and fatty acids
What is the end product for protein?
Which organs produce enzymes?
What are the four types of teeth?
What are the functions of incisors?
Bite your food/ used for biting
What are the functions of canines?
tear your food/ used for holding and piercing pray
What are the functions of pre molars?
Chew up your food/ used for crushing bones
What are the functions of molars?
Grind and chew your food/ used for crushing bones
What are the functions of carnassial teeth?
used for shearing flesh
Why do herbivores have a space between the teeth at the front of the mouth and the teeth at the back of the mouth?
It is where food collects before being swallowed
What is the breakdown of starch?
Starch ----------> Amylase ----------> Maltose (sam)
What is peristalsis?
In peristalsis food is moved in balls through the digestive tract by muscles contracting behind the fodd and relaxing infront of the food. This happens in waves and pushes the food along.
What is the breakdown on protein?
protein --------> pepsin -----------> amino acids
What is the breakdown of fat?
fat -------> lipase------> fatty acids and glycorol
What is bile?
Bile is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder . It passes along the bile duct into the small intestine along with digestive juice. When bile mixes with the food it breaks up large droplets of fat into small droplets of fat. This increases the surface area of fat upon which lipase can act.
What is the digestion of protein?
protein ----> pepsin ------> peptides -----> trypsin -----> amino acids
What is the tiny finger like projections on the internal surface of the small intestines?
It is called Villi
What is the reason for villi to only be one cell thick?
allows fasr diffusion of digestive foods
What is the reason for each villus to contain a network of capillaries?
allows fast transportation of sugars and amino acids around the body
What is the reason for each villus to contain a lacteal (lymphatic vessel)?
allows fast transportation of fatty acids and glycerol around the body.
What is the function of the large intestines?
the material reaching the large intestine consists of enzymes, bacteria and undigested food. The large intestine removes water from this material leaving faeces. Faeces is unwanted material which passes into the rectum is expelled through the anus.
What are three differences between eggs and sperm?
Doesn't have a tail
All of the cells is used
Has a tail
Doesn't have cytoplasm
Not all of the cell used only the head
What are the two types of fertilisation in animals?
External and internal fertilisation
What happens during external fertilisation?
Eggs released into the watery environment
Male sheds sperm over the eggs
Used by many water dwelling animals such as:
What happens during internal fertilisation?
Eggs and sperm meet inside the female's body
Sperm require a liquid to swim in
Used by many land dwelling animals such as :
What is the function of the testes?
What is the function of the sperm tube?
Allows release of sperm out of the male body
What is the function of the penis?
Allows sperm to be placed in the female body.
What is the function of the ovary?
Produces eggs each month
What is the function of the oviduct?
egg travels towards the uterus and fertilisation can occur
What is the function of the uterus?
fertilised egg develops to a baby
What is the function of the vagina?
sperm are inserted by a male
What are the four stages of fertilisation and development of the embryo?
1. Sperm swim to egg in ovarian tube and 1 fertilises it.
2. Fertilised egg divides into two identical cell by mitosis.
3. This continues until a ball of cells(embryo) is formed.
4. The ball of cells travels to the uterus and implants in the lining.
Water is gained through:
Chemical reaction in the body
Water is lost through:
What is ADH ?
The kidneys are controlled by a chemical called Anti Diuretic Hormone. This is a hormone released from the pituiraty gland in the brain. ADH controls the volume of the water reabsorbed and returned to the bloodstream.
What is excretion?
the extraction and elimination of waste products from the body.
How is urea made?
In the liver by excess or surplus amino acids being brokendown
Why must urea be eliminated from the body?
it is a poisoness waste product.
What two essential functions are the kidneys involved in?
Filtration of the blood
Re-absorbtion of useful substances only from the filtration
What are the stages in filtration and re-absorption in the kidneys?
1. The filtering units in the kidneys are called nephrons
2. The renal artery brings unfiltered blood into the kidney. It divides to form a network of blood capillaries called a glomerulus. These sit inside part of the nephron called the bowmans capsule.
3. Small molecules are filtered out of the blood into the nephron. This is called the glomerular filtrate.
4. Filtrated blood flows close to the nephron.
5. Useful substances are re-absorbed back into the blood from the tubule.
6. This purified blood is then transported to the renal vein leaving the kidney.
7. Urine, containing urea and excess water flows to the collecting duct and down the ureter to the bladder where it is stored before release.
What is the function of the renal artery?
Blood vessel that brings unpurified blood to a kidney.
What is the function of the bladder?
sac that is site of temporary storage of urine.
What is the function of bowmans capsule?
cup shaped structure at the start of a nephron that collects glomerular filtrate from the blood
What is the function of the loop of henle?
u-shaped length of kidney tubule where much water is reabsorbed into bloodstream
What is the function of the collecting duct?
communal tube that carries urine away from several kidney tubules and passes it to the ureter
What is the function of the urethra?
tube that allows the exit of urine from the bladder to the external environment.
What is the function of the renal vein?
blood vessel that takes purified blood away from a kidney.
What is the function of the glomerulus?
a tiny knot of blood capillaries within a bowmans capsule where filtration of blood occurs.
What is the function of the kidney?
one of two bean shaped organs that excrete urine and maintain water balance by regulating the water content of the body.
What is the function of the ureter?
tube that carries urine away from a kidney to the bladder.
What can be used if both kidneys are failing?
Either a transplant or Go on a kidneys dialysis machine.
What is the kidney dialysis machine able to do?
Effectively purify blood and therefore saves the life of a person with diseased kidneys.
What is the kidney dialysis machine not able to do?
It means you need to spend at lease 12 hours every week connected to the machine.
What is it meant by the term Biological clock?
Part of an animals nervous system thought the exert internal control over rhythmical behaviour.
What is the summary of rhythmical behaviour?
Lots of animals show rhythmical tidal behaviour.These are stimulated by the changing of the tides under the influence of the moon. These responses all increases the organisms chances of survival.
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