76 terms

APES CH. 7

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How often does the human ppulation increase?
Every 5 days
During those 5 days, how many people are born and how many people die?
1.8 million infants are born and 800,000 people die
What cuased death rates to fall, but birth rates remained relatively high 400 years ago?
Better living condiitons when agriculutal output and sanitation improved
What is the current human population?
6.8 billion people
What do limiting factors determine?
They determine the carrying capacity of a habitat
WHo is Thomas Malthus?
One of the first scientists who proposed the notion that the human population could exceed Earth's carrying capacity
What did Malthus think was happening?
That human population was growing exponentially, while the food supply we rely on was growing linerally
WHat is the other theory scientists have rearding carrying capacity?
That growing population of humans provides an increasing supply of intellect that leads to increasing amounts of innovation.
Ex. Arrows made hunting more efficient
Plowing by hand oxen-horse deiben plows
mechanical harvesters
Demography
The study of human populations and population trends
Demographers can offer insights
into how and why human populations change and what can be done to influence rates of change
What are the inputs of a population?
Immigration and crude birth rate
what are the outputs of the population?
Crude death rate and emigration
CBR
number of births per 1,000 individuals per year
CDR
number of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year
Global population growth rate
(CBR-CDR)/10
20-8/10=1.2 % in 2009
National poppulation growth rate
[(CBR + immigration) - (CDR+emigration)]/10
Doubling TIme
number of years it takes for a population to double
WHy can't we determine a country's doubling time with certainity?
Because population growth rates may change in future years?
If population growth rate stays the same, we can say with CERTAINITY that rule of 70 can be applied.
Doubling time (number of years)=70/growth rate
where will human population most likely be in 2050?
Between 8.1 and 9.6 billion
Where will population be in 2100?
Stabalized between 6.8 and 10.5 billion
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
an estimate of the average number of children that each woman in a population will bear throughout her childbearing years, between the onset of puberty and menopause
TFR in the uNited States
2.1
Replacement Level Fertility
the TFR required to offset the average number of deaths in a population so that the current population size remians stable
Norm of Replacement Level Fertility
2.1
Developed; lower then 2.1
Developing; higher than 2.1
Life Expectancy
Average number of years that an infant born in a particular year in a paricular country can be expected to live, given the current average life span in that country
Life expectancy is genrally higher in countries with better____ and a good predictor of ____
health care
high resource concumption rates and enivornmental impacts
3 ways life expectancy is reported
1) For overall population of country
2) For males only
3) for females only
Greater life expectancy; males or females?
Females have a higher life expectancy because males have tended to face greater dangers in the workplace, made more hazardours lifestyle choices, and been more likely to die in wars
Fctors in life expectancy, infant mortality, and child mortality?
1) availability of health care
2) access to good nutrition
3) exposure to pollutants
What is a good predictor of infant mortality rate?
Prenatal care;
IMR in liberia (99) and Bolivia (50)
Different IMR for a given sector of a country's population
YS 6.6
African-Americans 13.6
Native Americans 6.6
Caucasians 5.
Second biggest killer worldwide after heart disease
Infectious diseases caused by microbes that are transmissible from one person to another
Biggest causes of death
HIV and AIDS rather than tuberculosis or malaria
annual number of deaths due to AIDS reached a peak of ____
2.1 million in 2005 and has decreased since
Age Strucuture Diagrams
Visual representations of age structure within a country for males and females
Population Momentum
takes time for actions that attempt to reduce births to catch up with a growing population
Can a country with a relatively low CBR but a high immigration rate still experience population growth?
yes
Net migration rate
the difference between immigration and emigration in a given year per 1,000 people in a country
What dies a positive net migration rate mean?
More immigration than emigration
Where will net population growth come from in Canada and the US?
Immigration rather than births
Fiji
example of high emigration and high CBR
CBR; 2.6
Emmigration 6400 (total pop. 800,00)
The movement of people displaced because of disease, natural disaster,s environmental problems, or conflict can create what?
croded, unsanitary conditions, food and water shortages, and refugee camps, all of which can easily become humanitarian and environmental health issues
Movement of people from developing countries to developed countries tends to _____
increase the ecological footprint of those people
Mexco-US- more resources used because or more affluent US lifestyle
Doubling time in 1600; 1965
700 years; 42 years
Theory of Demographic Transition
As a country moves from a subsistence economy to industrialization and increased affluecnce, it undergoes a predictable shift in population growth
Phase 1
Slow Population Growth;
-Extreme birth and death rates cancel each out
-Life expectancy is relatively short
-Infant mortality rate is also high because of disease, lack of health care, and poor sanitation, thus more families have more children that they expect will live to adulthood
-More dependence on children to do work
Phase 2
Rapid Population Growth
-death rates decline while birth rates remain high
-modernizes, industrialization (a bit), better sanitation, clean drinking water, increased acces to food and goods, health care
-Population momentum effect: families still continue to be large because it takes at least one generation, if not more, for people to notice the decline in infant mortality and adjust to it
-state of imbalance
Phase 3
Stable Population Growth:
-as family incomes increase, people have fewer children because having large numbers of children in a more complex economic system becomes a financial burden rather than an economic benefit
-Low CBR and low CDR
-Population growth levels off
Phase 4
Declining Population Growth
-High level of affluence and economic employment; decling population
-Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, Russia
-Fewer young people, more older people
-ratio of dependent elderly to wage earners increases, and pension programs and social security services put a greater tax burden on each wage earner
-somewhat easier to raise children for women
Family Planning
regulation of the number or spacing of offspring through the use of birth control
As education of women increase and women earn incomes of their own, ___
fertility generally decreases
Higher age at first reproduction means that a woman is likely to have fewer children in her lifetime.
Countries with successful family planning campaigns
Kenya, Thailand (both began in the 1970's)
Of Earth's 6.8 billion inhabitants, how many live in developing/developed countries?
5.6 billion in developing
1.3 billion is developed
True/False: Impoverished countries are increasing thier population more rapidly than affluent countires
True
Disparity in Resource Use
Although 1/5 of human population lives in developed countries, those people consume much more than 1/2 of the world's energy and resources.
Affluence
Money, goods, or property
Review IMPAT EQUATION
Impact=Population x Affluence x Technology
Local Impacts
Rural, agriculturally based societies
-Typical in developing countries with local products
-TWO com
What are two commonly overused resouces?
Land itself and woody biomass from trees and other plants
-To put more land into cultivation because of increases with population and no food imports, farmers may convert forests of natural grasslands into cropland
Local environment impacts of converting land to agriculture include__
erosion, soil degradation, and habitat loss
Global Impacts:
COnversion of land to agriculture reduces the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide by plants,
affects global carbon cycle
Increase in use of fertilizers
made from fossil fuels increases the release of greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere
Who has the freatest impact of all lifestyles on the environemnt?
Affluent suburban living
Urban populations represent how much of human population \?
1/2
Urban area
more than 386 people per square kilometer (1,000 people per square mile
Most densely populated city in US
New YorkL 10,400 people per square kilometer(27,000)
Most densely populated city in the world
Mumbai, India
23,000 people per square kilometer (60,000 per square mile)
Percentage of people in developed countries that live in urban areas?
75%
By 2030, how many people are expected to live in urban areas
5 billion
Growth domestic product
value of all products and services produced in a year (measure of country's wealth)
GDP is made up of four types of economic activity
1) consumer spending
2) investments
3) government spending
4) exports minus imports
GDP correlates with pollution levels
low GDP; low industrial activity to produce much pollution; typical of developing coutnies
PVOERTY VS. BREATHING IN HARMFUL POLLUTANTS/DIRTY AIR
WHy increase GDP of developing nations to save the environment?
1) rising income generally correltaes with failing birth rates, and reducing population size should lead to a reduction in environmental impact
2) wealthier countries can afford to make environmental improvements and increase their effficiency of resource use
Millenium Ecosystem Assessment Project of 2005
Human demand for food, water, lumber, fiber, and fuel has led to a large and irreversible loss of biodiversity
1) Ecosyste sustainability will be threatened if human population continues its trend
2) Alterations to ecosystems that have improves human well-being will also exacerbate poverty for some populations
3) Need to establish sustainable practices to improve standard of livign for large numbe rof people
Review right hand side of p. 195
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