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54 terms

APES Final Review Chapter 4 Vocabulary

STUDY
PLAY
conservation
management of a resource so that its use does not exceed the ability of the resource to regenerate itself
preservation
the maintenance of a species or ecosystem in order to ensure their perpetuation, with no concern of its monetary value
natural resource
anything used from the Earth (biotic and abiotic) by humans that has economic value
renewable resource
a resource that regenerates itself as fast or faster than it is being used (plants, animals)
nonrenewable resource
a resource that regenerates itself slower than it is being used by humans (fossil fuels, minerals).
consumption
the day-to-day use of natural resources by humans
production
the extraction of natural resources from the environment for profit
traditional subsistence agriculture
low-tech farming with the purpose of feeding one's family only
slash and burn
early form of agriculture where a patch of forest is cut and then burned, releasing the nutrients into the soil from the ash.
Norman Borlaug
father of the "Green Revolution", he introduced high yield varieties of crops around the world, greatly increasing food production
green revolution
movement that greatly increased food production around the world by using high yield varieties of crops. Increased the reliance on pesticides and chemical fertilizers, but fed many more people.
salinization
process whereby soils become infertile due to salt buildup from irrigation water
Genetically modified organism (GMO)
animal or plant whose genes have been altered to improve a characteristic of the organism
deforestation
the loss of forests around the world due to pressures for land and wood from growing populations
old growth forest
forest that has never been cut or has not been cut for several hundred years (aka virgin forest)
second growth forest
forest that was once cut and has regenerated.
plantations
tree farms that are planted with one type of tree in neat straight rows for eventual harvest
clear-cutting
when all of the trees in an area are cut, and leads to high rates of erosion on sloped land
selective cutting
only certain trees are removed from an area, leaving the majority of the habitat in place, minimizing the environmental damage
shelter-wood cutting
specific type of selective cutting, where mature trees are cut over a period of time, usually 10-20 years, leaving some mature trees for seed production
agroforestry
practice where trees and crops are planted together, as in "alley cropping"
forest certification
forest management tool to promote sustainable forestry practices by labeling wood and products made from sustainably managed forests as "green wood".
greenbelts
open or forested areas built at the outer edge of a city where development is prohibited, increasing the quality of life for people living nearby
National Park System
managed land that allows for recreational use, but no natural resource extraction. Roads and facilities are built to help access
Wilderness Preservation Areas
Open for recreation only, but roads are not built into it. No logging or mining is allowed
National Forests, National Resource Lands, National Wildlife Refuges
land areas that allow logging and mineral extraction with a permit
surface fires
fire that burns only the underbrush, not harming mature trees
crown fires
fires that spread through the canopy of the forest, high temperatures, and usually fatal to trees
ground fires
smoldering fires that take place in bogs or swamps, and can burn underground for days or weeks
capture fishery
area where fish are harvested in large numbers in the ocean
by-catch
other species that are caught in fish nets that aren't the target species
driftnets
fishing practice where nets are dragged through the water, catching anything in their paths
bottom trawling
the ocean floor is scraped by heavy nets that smash everything in their path
long lining
the use of long fishing lines with baited hooks every so often, catching many non target fish
aquaculture
raising of fish and other aquatic species in captivity for harvest
mining
the excavation of the earth for the purpose of extracting ore or minerals
metallic minerals
minerals that are mined for their metal components. can be extracted (in smelting) ex: zinc, copper, gold
nonmetallic minerals
minerals that are mined to be used in their natural state, nothing is extracted (ex; calcium carbonate, sand)
mineral deposit
an area in which a particular mineral in concentrated
ore
rock deposit that contains high enough concentrations of a mineral to make it economical to be mined
acid mine drainage
water that drains from mining areas (mostly coal and metal mines) that is highly acidic, damaging ecosystems
gangue
waste material produced from mining (scrap rock)
tailings
piles of waste materials produced from mining
mitigation
process that identifies actions to avoid, lessen, or compensate for anticipated adverse envrionmental impacts
restoration
process of returning damaged ecosystems to ones that are functional, sustainable, and more natural
intangibles
values of natural ecosystems that are not easily quantified into dollars (ex: aesthetic value, spiritual value)
marginal costs
the cost of reducing pollution by one additional unit of pollution. Pollution is only reduced to the point where maginal cost = marginal benefit
marginal benefits
the benefits of reducing pollution by one more unit of pollution
externalities
an indirect cost in the production of a product that is not priced into the cost of the product (ex: air pollution health effects from burning trash)
cost-benefit analysis
process of weighing the expense of taking a particular environmental action (reducing pollution) to the positive outcomes of taking that action.
Tragedy of the Commons
when a free-access resource in over exploited because each user of the resource wants to maximize personal use without regard for other users.
Gross National Product (GNP)
the total of all the goods and services produced within a country in a given year.
Full-Cost Pricing
when both the direct and external costs are included in a product
ecosystem services
benefits to humans that functional, healthy natural areas provide. Examples include bee pollination of crops