Lesson 3: Hinduism
Terms in this set (47)
The forest treatises containing spiritual teachings revealed to the rishis.
Nomadic tribes from the steppes of north central Asia who entered the Indus River Valley and subjugated local populations.
One of the four stages of life recognized by Hinduism.
One of the four collections of hymns for recitation by Brahmin priests, it consists of blessings, curses, magical charms, and prayers.
Each person's permanent soul; collectively, the Atman of all beings constitutes Brahman.
The creator god who is typically depicted with four faces.
Ultimate supreme reality; it is conceived as divine reality but not depicted as a particular deity.
Texts created by Brahmins to formalize ritual behavior.
Priests and philosophers who occupy the highest social rank of the caste system.
The visual appearance of the divine or the seeing of the divine reality through a religious image.
A religious or social duty relative to gender, age, or caste.
The elephant-headed god who is often invoked at the beginning of a new venture or the start of a journey.
Philosophical teachers who are devoted to the seeking of spiritual truth.
A name referring to practitioners of Hinduism.
Literally means "action," but the term also connotes the consequences and side-effects that follow from an action.
An avatar of the god Vishnu, he is widely followed and has many international devotees.
In the caste system, the aristocratic class of warriors beneath the Brahmins and above the Vaishyas.
Law of Manu
Manual written by a primordial or original man named Manu that sanctions Hindu conventions and customs concerning gender roles, sex, marriage and family, the castes, the four stages of life, and the four paths.
A long epic written over many centuries between 400 B.C.E. and 400 C.E that contains the story of the Pandava brothers and the battle between related families—the Pandavas and the Kauravas— for control of the kingdom.
Mongols who adopted Islam.
The Hindu belief of liberation from the wheel of birth, death, and rebirth.
The world of matter, change, time, and space.
Hindu worship that links people to the divine.
Post-Vedic literary texts containing stories about gods, kings, creation, and the cycles of ages that are addressed to the common folk and promote devotion to personal deities.
A type of reality that is free from the chain of causal relations and the space-time continuum.
An avatar of Vishnu that appears in the great epic Ramayana where he and his wife, Sita, represent the ideal husband and wife.
The story of the conflict between good and evil that was written between the fourth century B.C.E. and the third century C.E.
The Hindu belief that when the body dies, the spirit is reborn in another physical body.
The oldest collection of one thousand hymns dedicated to nature deities.
One of the four collections of hymns for recitation by Brahmin priests, it consists of priestly mantras and chants.
A type of hymn that can be found in the Rig-Veda.
A philosophy that interprets purusha and prakriti as two different worlds or realities.
The belief that life is an endless cycle of existences, a series of birth, death, and rebirth.
Female deities that represent the feminine principle of divine energy, kundalini.
The god of creative destruction that destroys the forces of evil that threaten dharma.
Meaning "that which is revealed," it refers to the Vedas, Hindu canonical scripture believed to have been given by divine revelation.
In the caste system, manual laborers and craftsmen and artisans who descend from the legs; they are beneath the Vaishyas.
Meaning "that which is remembered," it is Hindu sacred scripture but not regarded as canonical or given by divine revelation.
Manuals of worship containing techniques for the performance of rituals devoted to Vishnu, Shiva, and the Shaktis.
Meaning "three forms," it consists of three gods: Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva.
The last part of the Vedas, it contains the philosophical teachings of many different gurus.
In the caste system, the merchants, tradesmen, and farmers who are beneath the Kshatriyas and above the Shudras.
A social caste that determines one's economic status, social roles, moral duties, and religious privileges.
The earliest Hindu scriptures and considered canonical because they contain divine revelation.
Hindu god known as the preserver and is viewed as a compassionate deity.
One of the four collections of hymns for recitation by Brahmin priests, it contains prayers and ritual instructions for the performance of sacrifices.
A philosophy and set of practices for attaining freedom from the delusions of dualistic thinking, release from the cycle of existences, and union with divine reality.