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the vascular tissue of a stem or root

ground tissue system

plant tissues that are neither vascular nor dermal, fulfilling a variety of functions, such as storage, photosynthesis, and support.


ground tissue that is internal to the vascular tissue in a stem; in many monocot roots, parenchyma cells that form the central core of the vascular cylinder.


ground tissue that is between the vascular tissue and dermal tissue in a root or eudicot stem.

parenchyma cell

a relatively unspecialezed plant cell type that carries out most of the metabolism, synthesizes and stores organic products, and develops into a more differentiated cell type.

collenchyma cell

a flexible plant cell type that occurs in strand or cylinders that support young parts of the plant without restraining growth.

sclerenchyma cell

a rigid, supportive plant cell type usually lacking a protoplast and possessing thick secondary walls strengthened by lignin at maturity

fiber cell

a lignified cell type that reinforces te xylem of angiosperms and functions in mechanical support: a slender, tapered sclerenchyma cell that usualy occurs in bundles.


a long, tapered waterconducting cell found in the xylem of nearly all vascular plants. No longer living.

vessel element

a short, wide water-conducting cell found in the xylem of most angiosperms and a few nonflowering vascular plants.

sieve-tube element

a living cell that conducts sugars and other organic nutrients in the phloem of angiosperms.

sieve plate

an end wall in a sieve-tube element which facilitates the flow of phloem sap in angiosperm sieve tubes.

companion cell

a type of plant cell that is connected to a sieve-tube element by many plasmodesmata and whose nucleus and ribosomes may serve one or more adjacent sieve-tube elements.

indeterminate growth

a type of growth characteristic of plants, in which the organism continues to grow as long as it lives.

determinate growth

a type of growth characteristic of most animals and some plant organs, in which growth stops after a certain size is reached.


a flowering plant that completes its entire life cycle in a single year or growing season.


a flowering plant that requires two years to complete its life cycle.


a flowering plant that lives for many years.

apical meristem

embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and the buds of shoots. The dividing cells of an apical meristem enable the plant to grow in length.


plant tissue that remains embryonic as long as the plant lives, allowing for interdeterminate growth.

primary growth

growth produced by apical meristems, lengthenig stems and roots.

secondary growth

growth produced by lateral meristems, thickening the roots and shoots of woody plants

lateral meristem

a meristem that thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants. vascular cambium and cork cambium is this.

vascular cambium

a cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that adds layers of secondary vascular tissue called secondary xylem and secondary phloem.

cork cambium

a cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that replaces the epidermis with thicker, tougher cork cells.

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