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Psychology- Chapter 13
Terms in this set (34)
The study of how people think about, influence, and relate to other people.
A generalization about a group's characteristics that does not consider any variations from one individual to another.
Theory that views people as motivated to discover the underlying causes of behavior as part of their effort to make sense of the behavior.
Internal: Inside & specific to the person/ traits.
External: Outside of the person/social pressure
Stable/ Unstable Causes
Enduring and permanent or is it temporary?
We perceive people have power of some causes
(Ex: If Henry's picnic was canceled by the rain it would not be held against him.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency for observers to overestimate the importance of internal traits and underestimate the importance of external situations when they seek explanations of an actor's behavior.
False Consensus Effect
Overestimation of the degree to which everybody else thinks or acts the way we do, stemming from the use of our own outlook or situation to predict that of others.
Positive views of the self that are not necessarily rooted in reality.
The tendency to take credit four our successes and to deny responsibility for our failures.
The tendency to see one's self primarily as an object in the eyes of others.
An individual's fast-acting, self-fulfilling fear of being judged on the basis of a negative stereotype about his or her group.
The process by which individuals evaluate their thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and abilities in relation to other people.
Opinions and beliefs about people, objects, and ideas.
A concept developed by Festinger; an individual's psychological discomfort (dissonance) caused by two inconsistent thoughts.
Bem Self-Perception Theory
Bem's theory about the connection between attitudes and behavior; stresses that individuals make inferences about their attitudes by perceiving their behavior (Ex: I go running every day so I must like it).
Festinger Cognitive Theory
When we are motivated toward consistency between attitudes and behavior and away from inconsistency (Ex: I hate my job- need to develop a better attitude toward it or quit).
Elaboration Likelihood Method
Theory identifying two ways by which a communication can be persuasive—a central route and by a peripheral route.
An unselfish interest in helping someone else.
Giving to another person to ensure reciprocity; to gain self-esteem; to present oneself as powerful, competent, or caring; or to avoid social and self-censure for failing to live up to society's expectations.
A feeling of oneness with the emotional state of another person.
The tendency of an individual who observes an emergency to help less when other people are present than when the observer is alone.
Social behavior whose objective is to harm someone, either physically or verbally.
Change in a person's behavior to coincide more closely with a group standard.
Ex: At a party drink a lot even though you normally don't.
Informational Social Influence
The influence other people have on us because we want to be right.
Normative Social Influence
The influence that other people have on us because we want them to like and approve of us.
Behavior that complies with the explicit demands of the individual in authority.
Ex: An authority figure tells us to do something and we do it.
The reduction of personal identity and erosion of the sense of personal responsibility that can arise when one is part of a group.
Imitative behavior involving the spread of behavior, emotions, and ideas.
Ex: People generally laugh more when other people are laughing too.
Improvement in an individual's performance because of the presence of others
Each person's tendency to exert less effort in a group because of reduced accountability for individual effort
The tendency for a group decision to be riskier than the average decision made by individual group members.
Group Polarization Effect
The solidification and further strengthening of an individual's position as a consequence of a group discussion.
Group members' impaired decision making and avoidance of realistic appraisal to maintain group harmony.
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