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The Brain

Brain Stem

Controls Blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, swallowing & vomiting

Medula Oblangata

Important Reflexes- Cardiac Center (autonomic)


Relay Center - Breathing


Reflex Center - turn ears & eyes movement

Interbrain (diencephalon) (3) parts

Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Epithalamus


emotion, touch, temp, pain / pleasure

Where does the Thalamus send message

sense organs > cerebrum


Homeostasis> body temp, water balance, metabolism, appetite, emotions, pain/pleasure


Pineal gland - melatonin (helps you sleep) also Choroid Plexus - forms CSF


(2) hemispheres, tree of life, balance, muscle tone & coordination (arbor vitae) white matter inside gray


Thinking part of the brain, (2 hemispheres L & R)
Separated by longitudinal fissure outer gray cortex

Surface area of Cerebrum

Gyri - Ridges ; Sulci - Grooves ; Fissures - Deeper grooves

Cerebral Dominance - Right

Spatial, Holistic, Creativity

Cerebral Dominance - Left

Orderly, Linguistic, Analytical (likes math) Logical

Cerebrum - Corpus Callosum

Band of neurons (coordinated 2 hemispheres)

Cerebrum - Cerebral Functions

Conscious thought, Voluntary movement, reasoning & emotions, speech, memory, intelligence

Men have a smaller ________ ?

Corpus Callosum (why they don't like to talk about feelings)

Cerebrum Lobes (5)

Frontal, Parietal (sides), Occipital (visual), Temporal (memory areas & auditory) Olfactory (smell)

Frontal lobe

Intellect, personality, cognition, problem solving, language, motor, (prefrontal)

Olfactory Lobe

Smells (located bottom of frontal lobe)

Occipital Lobe


Temporal Lobes

Auditory & memory area

Parietal Lobes (Sides)

Sensory, Temperature, touch

Primary Motor Area is where on the brain?

On Top

____ pairs of spinal nerves


Structure of the spinal cord

Consists of White & Gray Matter, 31 Spinal nerves

Cranial Nerves - Olfactory

(I) - Smell

Cranial Nerves - Glossopharyngeal

(IX) - saliva, swallow, lacrimal,

Cranial Nerves - Vagus

(X) - Digestive, peristalsis, heart slows, ie heart helps lungs to function properly

Cranial Nerves - Accessory

(XI) - neck & back muscles - help you breathe

Cranial Nerves - Hypoglossal

(XII) - tongue - helps you to swallow

Trama - Concussion

slight brain injury - no perm brain damage

Trama - Contusion

Nervous tissue destruction occurs, Nervous tissue does not regenerate

Trama - Cerebral Edema

Swelling from the inflammatory response - may compress and kill brain tissue

Degenerative - Cerebrovascular accident

Stroke - 3rd leading cause of death in us, Ischemia: lack of oxygen; transient ischemia attacks


lack of oxygen

Degenerative - Alxheimer's disease

Plaque & tangles in the brain

Degenerative - Sclerosis

Myelin is destroyed and replaced w/scar tissue

Degenerative - Cerebral Palsy

tempory lack of oxygen, brain damage, lack of muscle control, paralysis

Gray Matter does not __________


Neurilemma helps in ___________

Regeneration - (White matter)

Autonomic Nervous System (2)

Sympathetic & Parasympathetic

(ANS) Sympathic

Fight or Flight (norepinephrine) (thoracolumbar)

(ANS) Parasympathetic

Rest & Digest (Craniasacral), Vagus nerve (acetylcholine)

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