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51 terms

Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals

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can reptiles control their body temperature by burning calories inside themselves- using their metabolism?
NO - reptiles cannot use fuel to adjust body temperature - they must bask in the sun or hide in the shade, etc.
mammalia
mammals: warm-blooded vertebrates by hair, mammary glands in the female, and more
reptilia
reptiles: land vertebrates with dry skin, claws, and an amniotic egg that can be layed on land
how many chambers in most reptile hearts?
three
how many chambers in a crocodilian's heart?
four
testudines
turtles and tortoises
crocodilia
crocodiles and alligators
squamata
Lizards and snakes
sphenodonta
small group of unusual lizards in New Zealand like the tuatara - they have a pineal 'eye'
vertebrate with scaly skin and lungs is a ...
... reptile
vertebrate with hollow bones and a beak is a ...
... bird
gizzard
thick-walled muscular pouch below the crop in many birds and reptiles for grinding food
cerebellum
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
marsupial
mammals that feed and carry the young in a pouch on the mother (the marsupium); it contains the teats which supply milk to the young
gestation
growth process from fertilization (conception) to birth
embryo
an animal in the early stages of development - becomes the fetus in more complex vertebrates, becomes the larvae in lower vertebrates (human embryos become fetuses, frog fetuses become tadpoles)
placenta
organ in placental mammals through which nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and wastes are exchanged between embryo and mother - made of both fetal and maternal tissues
monotreme
a mammal that lays eggs - ex: the platypus
placental mammal
mammals having a placenta; all mammals except monotremes and marsupials
canines
pointed teeth that grip, puncture, and tear meat (especially useful in capturing and killing prey)
incisors
chisel shaped and bite off large pieces of food
bicuspids
used for crushing, mashing and grinding - side teeth in your mouth in front of the molars
molars
Large grinding teeth
do all birds have feathers?
yes, all birds have feathers
do all birds have just two legs?
yes, all birds have two legs
Are all birds warm-blooded?
Yes, all birds are warm-blooded
How many chambers in a mammalian heart?
Four chambers
the organ used to control the amount of water in the blood
the kidney
Reptiles reproduce by internal fertilization -
- True - in order to fertilize the egg before the shell is formed, fertilization must be internal
Are reptiles mostly viviparous?
- NO- reptiles cannot keep the developing embryo fed inside the mother because the shell prevents that
the reptiles with a four chambered heart
crocodiles and alligators
functions of feathers
conserve body heat; flight; waterproofing; displaying to mates and rivals
crop
a pouch in many birds and some lower animals before the stomach; used for storing and moistening food
Are birds are cold-blooded
No - birds are endotherms - they make their own body heat
What makes a bird's respiratory system so efficient?
Airflow one-way - so the air in the lungs isn't a mixture of inhaled breath and air about to be exhaled. The bird exhales air through a whole separate tube.
What is the benefit of a four-chamber heart compared to a three chamber heart?
Four chambers allows the heart to keep oxygen-rich blood completely separate from oxygen-poor blood.
carapace
dorsal (upper) part of a turtle shell
plastron
ventral (lower) part of a turtle shell
dinosaur
warm-blooded vertebrates descended from reptiles, some (the carnivorous ones) were ancestors of birds; most of the later carnivorous dinosaurs had feathers while the majority of the herbivores had none
rumen
stomach chamber in cows and related animals in which newly swallowed plant food is stored and processed
a kangaroo is a marsupial
true - a kangaroo is a marsupial mammal
a cow is a placental mammal
true - a mother cow nourishes the fetus with a placenta
Is a wombat is a monotreme?
no - a wombat is a marsupial
Is a koala is a placental mammal
No - a koala is a marsupial
a human being is a placental mammal
true - human fetuses are nourished by a placenta
mammary gland
milk-secreting organ of female mammals
carnivora
order of mammals whose predominant teeth are canines for tearing; includes lions, tigers, bears, foxes, wolves, dogs, cats, raccoons, seals, and walruses
rodentia
rodents; an order of mostly small gnawing mammals including mice, beavers, rats, gerbils
carnivorous animal's tooth used for grabbing and stabbing prey
canine tooth
gnawing animal's tooth often used for slicing plant material like seeds and wood and stems
incisors
teeth excellent for chewing plant material
molars