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Semester 5 Review
Terms in this set (173)
the liver is divided into how many minor lobes
what is the main digestive function of bile
where is bile formed
what is the primary focus of membranous folds located within the cystic ducts
prevent distention or collapse of the cystic ducts
what is the function of the gallbladder
stores and concentrates bile
what is the primary function of cholecystokinin? where is it formed?
Stimulate GB to contract, duodinal mucosa
what is an older term for the pancreatic duct
Duct of Wirsung
in __ of all individuals the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct unite before entering the duodenum
What is an older term for the hepatopancreatic sphincter?
sphincter of oddi
Chole- is a prefix for
the esophagus is located ___ to the larynx
which structures create a normal indentation seen along the lateral border of the esophagus
aortic arch & left primary brochis
which of the following patient care concerns would prevent the use of an oral, water soluble contrast medium
Pt. is sensitive to iodine or Pt. is severely dehydrated
are cassettes required for imaging with a digital fluroscopy unit
No, flat panel detector
protective aprons are worn during fluroscopy must possess at least ___ mm lead equivalency
which condition involves dilated veins in the digital aspect of the esophagus, which in some cases can lea to internal bleeding
Achalasia is generally defined as:
cardiospasam motor disorder of the esophagus peristalsis is reduce along distal 2/3 of esophagus
what is a bezoa
only ___ % of all ulcers lead to bowl preforation
What is GERD?
gastro esophageal reflux disease
which of the imaging modalities is most effective and prefered in diagnosing HPS
what are the technical factor that will best enhance a digital image taken during an upper GI series
high KV 110-125 required to penetrate adequately & increase visibility
what is the patient preparation for an esophagram
no prep unless upper GI is to follow
what positions comprise an esophagram's basic routine
RAO 25-40, Lateral, AP (PA)
what is the patients preperation for an adult upper GI series
NPO from midnight until time of exam. DO NOT chew gum
what is the KV range for an upper GI series using barium sulfate (single contrast study)
which imaging modality is an alternative to an esophagram for detecting esophageal varies
gastric emptyinh studies are preformed using
the RAO position of the esophagus is preferred over the LAO because it
allows barium to migrate toward pyloric portion or distal stomach & air in stomach shift toward fundus
which of the upper GI projections will best fill the body and pylorus with barium
at what level should the CR and image preceptor be centered for the RAO or PA upper GI projection and/or position on a sthenic--body type of patient
level of LI
all bariumwork should be dine using at least
what UGI position will best demonstrate a tumor posterior to the stomach
right lateral position
which UGI position may be helpful in demonstrating a hiatal hernia
AP trendenbrug position
if the body and pylorus of the stomach are superimposed on a PA prij of an infant how can you correct this on a repeat image
a patient comes to radiology with a clinical history of HPS. which imaging modality will best demonstrate this condition
which part of the small intestine has a feathery appearance when filled with barium
which aspect of the large intestine is located highest or upper most superior in the abdomen
left colic flexure
identify all parts of the colon. which parts are not considered to be part of the colon?
ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid rt and lt colic
which part of the large intestine is located between the rectum and the descending colon
what is the term for the three bands of muscle that pull the large intestine into pouches
which sections of the large intestine will most likely be filled with air with the patient in the prone position during a double contrast barium enema
rectum ascending & descending
which part of the GI tract synthesizes and absorbs vitamins B and K
the circular staircase or herringbone pattern is a common radiographic sign for a mechanical ileus
whicch conditions may possibly cause an agynamic ileus
which condition may produce the cobblestone or string sign
regional enteritis/ crohns disease
when are small bowel series deemed to be complete
Once contrast media passes the ileocecal valve
the term describing a double contrast small bowel procedure is
a twisting of the intestine on its own mesentery is termed
a telescoping or incagination of one part of the intestine into another is termed
the stovepipe radiographic sign is often seen with
the "tapered" or "corkscrew" radiographic sign is often seen with
what is an irritant laxative
which condition would contraindicate the use of a cathartic before a barium enema
are syntheic latex enema tips safe to use for latex sensitive patients
in what position is the patient placed for the enema tip insertion
during the initial enema tip insertion the tip is aimed
toward the umbilicus
the ideal KV range fir a double contrast barium enema is
during a colostomy barium enema what kind of enema tip is used
tapered irragation tip- double contrast retention enema tip
(a small balloon may be at the end of the tip)
the opening leading into the instestine for the patient with a colostomy is termed the
the height of the enema bag should not exceed ___ inches above the radiographic table in the beginning of the study
which imaging modality can demonstrate abscesses in the retroperitoneum
which imaging modalites and/or procedures is very effective in detecting the Meckel diverticulum
Central ray and image receptor centering for a 1-hour small bowel radiograph should be:
level of iliac crest
which positions will best demonstrate the left colic flexure
PA oblique, LAO
what is another name for the AP lateral projection taken during a barium enema procedure
How much CR angulation is required for the AP axial projection
why is it important for the technologist to review the patients chart and inform the radiologist before beginning the BE exam if a biopsy was preformed as a part of a prior sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy procedure
biopsy of the colon may weaken that portion of the colon which could lead to preform during BE
Why is oral contrast media sometimes given during a CTC
to mark or tag possible fecal matter
the average adult kidney measures __ in length
what structure enables the kidneys to be visualized on plain abdominal radiographs
the term describing the total functioning portions of the kidney
Urine will travel from the major calyces to the ______.
the structural and functioning part of the kidney is called
One of the three constricted points along each ureter is the pelvic brim. The location of this constricted point is:
iliac blood vessels cross over one ureters
the total capacity of the average adult bladder
the term describes the act of voiding under voluntary control
ionic contrast agents use a parent compound of
carboxyl group (benzoic acid).
nonionic contrast agents may __the severity of side effects as compared with ionic contrast agents
which components of a ionic contrast media adds to its solubility
the normal creatinine level for an adult is
what is the primary purpose of the premedication procedure before an ionated contrast media study
reduce the severity of the possible contrast media reaction
Patchy, blunting of the calyces is a radiographic sign of:
The technologist should leave a _____ needle in the vein for the first part of the IVU following injection
Which veins are not normally used during venipuncture?
what kind of needles are often used for drip infusion studies?
over the needle catherters
FYI: you should never inject through a central line
Patients (or legal guardian) must sign an informed consent form before a venipuncture procedure.
what is the recommended treatment protocol for extravasation?
elevate limb and apply cold compress
which level of severity is the reaction of giant hives?
which term describes the leakage of contrast media from a vein into the surrounding tissues of the arm?
what is the correct course of action for the technologist when, during an injection of contrast media, a patient experiences a side effect of mild hot flashes and some metallic taste in his mouth?
reassure patient and continue to observe for a reaction
know the symptoms that are considered a severe reaction to contrast media and is a life threatening condition requiring life saving measures?
larynx swelling and cardiac arrhythmias
a loss of consciousness due to reduced cerebral blood flow is termed
the drug lasix, is classified as what kind of drug
extravasion is actually considered an organ specific reaction and is classified as a _____ contrast media reaction
a medical emergency must be declared if the patient experiences a ______ contrast media reaction
which contrast media reactions can be life threatening?
vasovagal reaction, cardiac arrhythmia
the majority of reactions to contrast media are _____ reaction
a patient experiences a hot flash after the injection of iodinated contrast media. what should be the next step action taken by tech?
comfort patient and communicate side effect
normal levels for BUN
normal levels for creatine
a male patient comes to the radiology department for a voiding cystourethogram. which projections and positions are recommended for this procedure?
30 degrees RPO
a patient comes to radiology for an IVU. which position will best demonstrate an enlarged prostate gland?
AP erect, prevoiding and voiding
Ureteric compression is contraindicated for patients with a history of:
what is the recommended position for a male retrograde urerthogram?
30 degrees RPO
females can be shielded for a nephrotomography
females cannot be shielded for an IVU
CR for nephrotomogram of the kidneys
midway between the xiphoid process and the iliac crest
a nephrogram taken during an IVU demonstrates that the renal parenchyma is poorly visualized but the calyces are contrast enhanced. what is the most likely reason for this?
waited too long to take the 1st image after the injection
Divisons of the stomach
fundus, pylorus, and body
what type of solution is formed when barium is mixed with water?
A stomach, with the duodenal bulb at the level of L2, would be found in a(n) ____ patient.
A high and transverse stomach would be found in a(n) ____ patient.
what part of the GI tract is responsible for the absorption of digestive end products along with water, vitamins, and minerals?
Includes movement of the gastrointestinal tract
aka grinding or chewing your food when you eat
chemicals produced by the body break foods into their smaller chemical building blocks through the allimentary canal
Where is the heart located?
between the lungs in the mediastinum
the chambers of the heart are?
2 atria and 2 ventricles
Name the upper chambers of the heart
the innermost layer of the heart
the outer most layer of the heart
the pericaridum consist of
visceral and parietal
the right side of the heart valves are the
tricupsid and pulmonary
the first heart sound is the closing of the
tricupsid and mitral valves "lubb"
the superior vena cava carries what? to where?
deoxygenated blood to the heart
when the left ventricle contracts, it pulses blood through a valve to the
the pulmonary vein returns oxygen-rich blood to the
the right side of the heart carries what kind of blood to where?
deoxygenated blood to the lungs
the heart muscle is supplied with blood by
inferior and superior vena cava
the pacemaker of the heart is the
list the correct sequence for conducting system is
SA node, AV node, bundle of HIS
The first blood vessel of systemic circulation is the:
The last blood vessel of pulmonary circulation is the
when do the openings for the coronary arteries originate?
which two vessels deliever blood to the heart muscle?
superior and inferior vena cava
Which heart valve is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle?
list the functions of the cardiovascular system
removal of waste through kidneys
maintain body temp and water
the tricupside valve is located between
the right atria and right ventricle
the ventricles are called the
the atria's walls are ______ than the ventricular walls
As viscosity of the blood increases the blood pressure
blood pressure is highest in the aorta and lowest in what vessel
capillaries, venules, veins
the two ear shaped forward extension of the atria are the
the cardiac cycle consit of
period of relaxtion (diastole)
period of contraction (systole)
during fetal life blood moves directly from the
right atrium to the left atrium
the space between the perietal and visceral layers of the pericardium is the
the muscular papillae in the right and left ventricles have attachments that pull down on the valves are called
which term describes a variation of the aorta in which of the descending aorta is arched to the right?
coverings of the heart
endocardium, myocardium, pericardium
systemic circulation moves blood from
heart to rest of the body
pulmonic circulation moves blood from
heart to lungs
two atria-ventricular valves and give their location
mitral valve and tricupsid valve
located between the atria and ventricle
the left atrium has four openings where the
pulmonary vein enter
the _______ side of the heart pumps blood through the pulmonary circulation
the right and left ventricles are seperated a
wall muscle called the septum
the relaxtion phase of the heart
the contraction phase of the heart
the two systems of blood circulation in the body are ______ and ______
cardiovascular and lymphatic
the two systems of blood vessels of the body are the ______ and _____
pulmonary and systenic
the myocardium recieves its blood supply from the
the largest chamber in the heart is the
in a blood pressure the upper reading is the
complete circulation of the blood through the systemic and pulmonary systems, from a given point and back again requires about ______ seconds
list the three main layers of the arterial walls
tunica intima- inner most
tunica media- middle
tunica externa- external
three main branches off the aortic arch
left subclavian, left common control, brachiocephalic
three main arteries that come off the celiac axis are the
liver- common hepatic, spleen- splenic, stomach- left gastric
the only artery that comes off the abdominal aorta at 90 degrees is the
what is the longest vein in the body
great saphenous vein
what arteries supply the myocardium and arise off the ascending aorta
the artery that supplies the upper arm is known as
Where does the aorta bifurcate? and what does it become?
L4 and becomes the right and left common iliac arteries
what arteries branch off the popliteal
anterior and posterior tibial
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