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psyc 2300 exam 1
Terms in this set (173)
the determination that a set of symptoms or problems indicates a particular disorder
consistency of measurement
ex. woodern ruler
if two observers agree on what they have seen
80% is satisfactory
90% is better
if a person taking a test twice will have similar scores (time interval apart)
extent to which two forms of a test have consistent scores
internal consistency reliability
assesses whether the items on a test are related to one another
does it measure what it's supposed to measure? or actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure
does the measure sample from across the domain of interest
ex. - snacks - all the snacks (salty, sweet, chocolate)
determines whether a measure is associated in a expected way with some other measure (the criterion)
when both variables are measured at the same time
the ability of a measure to predict some other measure at some point in the future
IQ is measure that predicts job success and income
the whole test validity
do the measures of an assessment relate to variables or behaviours according to some theory or hypothesis
basic set of assumptions
1. Almost all behaviour is heritable - to a degree
2. Genes don't operate in isolation - genes shape environment and environment shapes genes
nature via nuture
part of a chromosome
turning off/ on genes
extent to which a disorder can be accounted for by genetic factors
1. heritability range 0-1; 1 high heritability, 0 low heritability
2. only for large populations not for individual people
things that members of a family have in common; parenting style, family income level, parent's marital status
factors that are distinct among family members - one person's hobby that is different
the study of genes and environment factors influence of behaviour
DNA - genetic expression - not observed
physical representation of a genetic type
study of particular genes and their function
different forms of the same gene
(hitch hiker thumb)
refers to a difference in DNA sequence that has occurred in a population
single nucleotide polymorphisms
differences between people in a single particular nucleotide
copy number variations
abnormal copy of one or more sections of DNA
a person's sensitivity to environmental events is influenced by genes
serotonin transporter gene
gene that has alleles SS, LS and LL
SS allele makes one more susceptible to depressive events
LL allele makes on less susceptible to depressive events
how environment can alter gene expression
Reciprocal Gene-Environment Interactions
genes predispose us to seek out environments that increase our risk for developing a genetic disorder
ex. genetic risk for alcohol abuse, may predispose a person to life events that put a person in high-risk situations - such as being in trouble with the law, breaking up with boyfriend, difficulties with parents
mental disorders are link to aberrant processes in the brain
nerve cell in body
activation of a neuron - from axon to terminal endings
the space between a neurons or cells
chemicals in the synapse that allow signals to be sent to other neurons
when neurotransmitters that are taken back in the bottom of the neuron
depression, mania and schizophrenia
involved in high states of arousal
anxiety and stress related conditions
substance abuse of this
neurotransmitter - GABA
anxiety disorders - nerve impulses
released by joining of neurotransmitter, receptor and a protein - releases a second messenger, which controls sensitivity in synapse
stimulates (particular neurotransmitter receptors)
decreases (particular neurotransmitter receptors)
control how neurons work
area that connects hemispheres in brain
cortex - outer layer of brain
front of brain
behind on top of brain
under parietal and behind frontal
back of the brain
front tip of frontal lobe
myelinated cells, that connect cortex to spinal cord - under cerebral cortex
brain cavities for spinal fluid
relay station for all sensory pathways (except smell)
connects the brain and spinal cord, contains the pons and medulla, functions as a neural relay station
area of brain - balance, posture, and motor coordination
regulates metabolism, temperature, perspiration, blood pressure, sleeping and appetite
eliminating neural connections
Hypothalamus -> Pituitary -> Adrenal Cortex (glands)
- reaction to stress,
glands (stomach) release cortisol - stress reacation (HPA axis)
a hormone released in the adrenal cortex (glands) that is involved in the body's stress reaction (HPA axis)
sympathetic nervous system
fight or flight
parasympathetic nervous system
rest and digest
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
operates with out control or awareness
cognitive behavioural paradigm
people can be best understood by understanding how they perceive experiences and how this influences behaviour
negative punishment, a person is removed from the time and location of positive reinforcement
behavioural activation therapy (BA)
treatment of depression- helping a person engage in activities that provide positive reinforcement
part of systematic desensitization, a person is shown the feared/ phobic stimulus, can be in vivo or imaginal exposure
mental process of perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, judging and reasoning
a person can be influenced by prior learning without knowing it
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
blend of cognitive and behavioural paradigms-incorporates theory and research on cognitive processes, like thoughts, perceptions, judgments, self-statements, and tacit assumptions
changing a pattern of thought
the expression, experience, and physiology that guide responses to problems and challenges in environment
the kinds of emotional states that a person ideally wants to feel
object relations theory
stresses importance of long standing patterns in close relationships (family)
measures attachment styles in infants
interpersonal therapy (IT)
importance of current relationships in a person's life - how problems in these relationship can contribute to psychological symptoms
paradigm that links genetic, neurobiological, psychological, and environmental factors
predisposition to a disease - any characteristic that increases chance of developing a disorder
environmental or life disturbances
What is Statistics?
A set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing, and interpreting information
General Purpose of Statistics
1. Organize and summarize info so in a research study
2. Helps researcher answer the general questions of the study (by determining exactly what conclusions are justified based on results that were obtained)
The set of individuals in a particular study
A set of individuals selected from a population, usually intended to represent the population in a
A characteristic or condition that changes or has different values for different individuals. Cause-and effect relationship between two variables - experiment attempts to control all other variables to prevent them from influencing results.
Measurements or observations; A data set is a collection of measurements or observations; a datum is a single measurement or observation and is commonly called a score or raw score.
A numerical value that describes a population.
Statistical procedures used to summarize, organize, and simplify data.
allow us to study samples of populations and then make generalizations about that population
Amount of error between a sample statistic & corresponding population parameter
2 variables observed to determine if there is a relationship between them
manipulation vs. control
Manipulate one variable by changing it. Control variable determines if the manipulation causes changes to occur.
variable that is manipulated
the one that is observed
control condition vs. experimental condition
CC do not receive the experimental treatment while EC do receive the experimental treatment
In a nonexperimental study, the "independent variable" that is used to create the different groups of scores
a discrete variable
consists of separate, indivisible categories. No values can exist between two neighboring categories
a continuous variable
infinite possible values
the boundaries of intervals for scores that are represented on a continuous number line. The real limit separating two adjacent scores is located exactly halfway between the scores. Each score has two real limits. The upper real limit is at the top of the interval, and the lower real limit is at the bottom.
A nominal scale
consists of a set of categories that have different names. Measurements on a nominal scale label and categorize observation, but do not make any quantitative distinctionhs between observations.
set of categories in an ordered sequence. Ranks observations in terms of size to magnitude.
Categories that are all intervals of the same size. Reflects equal differences in magnitude. (However, the zero point on an interval scale is arbitrary and does not indicate a zero amount of the variable being measured)
features an absolute zero point. With ratio scale, ratios of numbers reflect ratios of magnitude.
concerns the responsibility of researchers to be honest and respectful to all individuals who are affected by their research studies or their reports of the studies results
2 basic categories of ethical responsibility:
1. Ensure welfare and dignity of the subjects who participate in their research studies
2. Ensure public reports are accurate and honest
10 guidelines for ethical treatment of human participants (after Nuremberg crimes- 1947)
1974 National Research Act
Congress passed mandated regulations for protections of human participants
summarizes the basic ethical principles identified by the National Commission
Belmont Report 3 basic principles
1. Respect - requires subjects should consent to participate, and those who cannot give consent need to be protected
2. Beneficence - researcher not harm the participants (with minimum risks, max possible benefits)
3. Justice - fairness in procedures for selecting participants
APA Ethics Code
containts 10 ethical standards in 2002
requires the investigator to provide all available info about a study so indv can make a rational, informed decision to participate in the study
researcher withholds info or misleads participants about a study; two forms
Omission; withholding info; intentionally does not tell participants some info about study
Commission; presenting of false info to participants; most common form= lying about specific purpose of the study
post-experimental explanation of the purpose of a study that is given to a participant, esp if deception was used
practice of keeping striclty secret/private the info/measurements obtained from an indv during a research study
practice of ensuring that an indv's name is not directly associated with the info/measurements obtained from that indv
The Institutional Review Board (IRB)
Committee - examines all proposed research with respect to its treatment of human participants. IRB approval must be obtained.
The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)
is a committee that examines all proposed research with respect to its treatment of nonhuman subjects; approval must be obtained prior to conducting any research with nonhuman subjects
the explicit effort of a researcher to falsify/misrepresent data
the repetition of a research study using the same basic procedures used in the original; either the replication supports the original study by duplicating the original resluts, casts doubt on the original study by demonstrating that the original reslut is not easily repeated
representation of someone else's ideas or words as one's own, and it is unethical
Fear of open or public places
Antisocial personality disorder
A personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
A category of psychological disorders in which extreme anxiety is the main diagnostic feature and causes significant disruptions in the person's cognitive, behavioral, or interpersonal function
Attention Deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
disorder typically diagnosed in childhood and adolescence characterized by hyperactivity as well as attention, organization, and behavior control issues
Autism spectrum disorder
Disorders marked by impaired social cognition, social skills, and social interaction, presumably due to a brain abnormality; extreme forms often associated with significant cognitive and linguistic delays and highly unusual behaviors.
An unstable emotional condition characterized by cycles of abnormal, persistent high mood (mania) and low mood (depression)
Borderline personality disorder
Lack of stability in relationships, self-image, and emotion. Impulsivity; angry outbursts; intense fear of abandonment; recurring suicidal gestures
An ongoing condition that exists with another condition that the patient is receiving treatment for.
A repetitive and rigid behaviour that a person feels compelled to perform in order to reduce anxiety.
A false belief or opinion
Diagnostic and statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM)
A widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
How people end up suffering from mental disorders by assuming they come from the interaction of two things, genetic and life experience (nature and nurture).
conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
Characterized by excessive anxiety or worry about numerous things, lasting for 6 months or longer.
False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
A condition that occurs after a period of negative consequences where the person begins to believe they have no control.
Major depressive disorder (MDD)
A mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
an unhealthy and compulsive preoccupation with something or someone
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsession) and/ or actions (compulsions).
An unexpected, sudden experience of fear in the absence of danger, accompanied by physical symptoms such as shortness of breath and chest pain.
An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
Social phobia/social anxiety
A disorder characterized by an unrealistic fear of being scrutinized and criticized by others.
Somatoform disorder/somatic symptom disorder
a long-term (chronic) condition in which a person has physical symptoms that involve more than one part of the body, but no physical cause can be found.
An excessive, unreasonable fear of a particular object or situation.
A type of drug used to reduce the symptoms of depressive mood disorders.
A treatment process that focuses on changing unwanted behaviors through rewards and reinforcements.
An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
treatment that begins with an agreement about what the therapist and the client can expect from each other and how long the treatment will last; also known as time-limited therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
Action therapy in which the goal is to help clients overcome problems by learning to think more rationally and logically
teaches clients to question their automatic beliefs that often lead to negative emotions and to replace with more realistic and positive beliefs
A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
A form of therapy focusing on improving communication between partners
Severe Depression: electric current sent through brain of anesthetized patient
Evidence Based Practice
Clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences
therapy that treats the family as a system. views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
Exploring the unconscious - person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
A form of psychotherapy that involves one or more therapists working simultaneously with a small group of clients.
assumes all individuals have tendency toward growth and that it can be facilitated by acceptance and genuine reactions from the therapists.
A medical doctor with additional training in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and emotional disorders.
focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders.
One who treats mental or emotional disorder or related bodily ills by psychological means.
An interaction between a therapist and someone suffering from a psychological problem, with the goal of providing support or relief from the problem
A reluctance to cooperate with treatment for fear of confronting unpleasant unconscious material.
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
Albert Ellis - form of psychotherapy based on identifying and correcting irrational beliefs that are believed to underlie emotional and behavioral difficulties
patient transfers emotions linked (with other relationships) to the analyst. (Ex. love or hatred for parent)
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
David G Myers
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
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