APUSH Chapter 30-33
Why did President Wilson break off diplomatic relations with Germany?
Germany announced the continuance of unlimited submarine warfare, broke the Sussex Pledge in 1916
The Zimmerman Note involved a proposed secret agreement between what two countries?
Germany and Mexico
President Wilson viewed America's entry into WWI as an opportunity for the US to do what?
Make the world safe for Democracy
When the US entered WW1, what was it's preparedness?
Very unprepared - only 100,000 soldiers
During WW1, civil liberties in America were:
Violated by Espionage and Sedition acts - against anarchists, socialists, antiwar Americans, etc.
What 2 groups suffered the most from the violation of civil liberties during WW1?
Germans and Antiwar Americans
Communist party people (Anarchists and Socialists) also suffered
How was most of the money raised to finance WW1 in the US?
Loans from the American people- Liberty Bonds
During WWI, what countries did American Troops fight in?
France, Belgium, Italy, and Russia
The two major battles of WWI in which the US forces engaged were:
Saint Mihiel and the Meuse-Argonne (In Argonne forest)
What resulted from Russia's withdrawal from WW1 in 1918?
All German troops fighting on the Western front moved to France and attacked Paris
Who was the supreme military commander of the American Forces during WWI?
John J. Pershing
A condition of ending WWI, what did Woodrow Wilson demand of Germany?
That the Kaiser must be thrown from power before an armistice could be negotiated
What was Woodrow Wilson's ultimate goal at the Paris Peace Conference?
League of Nations
What was the major weakness of the League of Nations?
The US wasn't a member
What provoked the Red Scare of 1919-1920 in the US?
The Russian Revolution - Bolsheviks and fear of communism
How did business owners use the red scare?
Labor unions were considered Communist - Made strikers look bad
What did the post-WWI Ku Klux Klan advocate?
Anti-foreign, anti-catholic, anti-black
The KKK of the 1920s was a reaction against:
Rapid movement of social changes in the US
The most spectacular example of lawlessness and gangsterism in the 1920s was in what US city?
According to John Dewey, a teacher's primary goal is to:
Educate for life - teach skills that will help with actual jobs, life problems, etc.
The trial of John Scopes in 1925 centered on what issue?
Darwinism v. Fundamentalism
Teaching Darwin's theory of evolution was destroying faith in God and the Bible
What was Henry Ford's contribution to the Automobile industry?
Affordable, reliable cars; more effective assembly line
What did the 1920 census reveal?
More Americans lived in urban areas than in rural areas for the first time
Margaret Sanger was most noted for her advocacy of:
Birth control - Women get to choose when they become pregnant
What did Marcus Garvey, founder of the United Negro Improvement Association, advocate?
The resettlement of American blacks in their "Homeland"
What is buying stock "On margin"?
Purchasing stock with a very small down payment - credit - loan the rest of the money from the bank
What was the 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact?
Countries that signed stating that they would not go to war except for in defensive cases- outlawed war
The teapot dome scandal involved the corrupt mishandling of:
Naval oil reserves
During Coolidge's presidency, the government policy was set largely by the interests and values of:
Big Business - the Business community
What was the major problems facing farmers in the 1920s?
Overproduction and under consumption
What was the result of the Hawley-Smoot Tariff in 1930?
Highest tariff in US history - resulted in world depression
-Other countries in depression couldn't afford to trade even though they needed it too- less consumption
What was president Hoover's approach to the Great Depression?
Limited government role - rugged individualism - money to businesses only. No direct relief
Why was the Reconstruction Finance Corporation established?
Designed to provide indirect relief by assisting insurance companies, rank, agricultural organization, railroads, and hard-pressed state and local government - no individual loans
What did the Bonus Army demand?
Immediate payment of redemption of their service
In 1932, Franklin Roosevelt campaigned on the promise that as president he would attack the Great Depression by:
Experiment with bold new programs for economic and social reform
-Recovery, relief, and reform
What did the Glass-Steagall Act create?
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to insure bank deposits and therefore prevent bank runs
How did the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) propose to solve the "farm problem"?
Reduced staple crop production and the amount of livestock
What did the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 attempt to do?
Reserve the individualistic approach - restore tribal basis of Indian life
Where did most Dust Bowl migrants head to?
West - Usually California
What was the aim of the Federal Securities Act and the Securities Exchange Commission?
Protect the public against fraud, deception, and inside manipulation
What did the Wagner Act of 1935 do?
Give rights to unionize - created NLRB
President Roosevelt's "Court Packing" scheme in 1937 reflected his desire to make the Supreme Court do what?
Make the New Deal programs constitutional by adding more judges who were favorable of him
What was the result of the 1937 "Roosevelt Recession"?
Deficit spending increased
What was FDR's New Deal most notable for?
Providing moderate social reform without radical revolution reactionary fascism
How did Senator Huey Long of Louisiana gain national popularity?
Promised to make "Every man a king" - Spread the wealthy's money
What did Andrew Jackson's inauguration as President symbolize?
Ascendancy of the masses
What was the purpose behind the spoils system?
Give high government positions to loyal people in order to keep party/leader in office
What was the policy of the Jackson administration toward the eastern Indian tribes?
Forced Removal - Indian Removal Act
What is the sentiment of fear and opposition to open immigration called?
Who was the greatest of the revival preacher of the Second Great Awakening?
Charles Grandison Finney
What was the Half-Way Covenant?
Partially admitted to the Church - Baptized but didn't have full rights of visible saints
-to raise amount of people in Church
Why did the Founding Fathers fail to eliminate slavery?
They were worried it would break the fragile national unity
What did Alexander Hamilton believe about a limited national debt?
It's beneficial because then you can make the wealthy dependent on the government - steadily getting money
What was China's Boxer Rebellion?
Rebellion of patriotic group killing hundreds of foreigners - get back to Old China
The "Real Heart" of the progressive movement was the effort by reformers to:
Use the government to improve society
The political roots of the progressive movement lay in the what earlier movements/parties?
Progressive Reformers were mainly men and women from what class in society?
To regain power that the people had lost to the "interests", what did the progressives advocate?
Recall, initiative, referendum, and direct election of senators
While president, what did Theodore Roosevelt choose to label his reform proposals?
The Square Deal
What was President Taft's foreign policy called?
Stay neutral, nativism, reluctance to become involved in European alliances/affairs/wars
Democracy could flourish without fear of power-crazed autocrats and militarists
Resented "capitalistic" interventions - suffocated Communist revolution of 1917
The principle in international law that nations have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international political status with no external compulsion or external interference.
-A political leader who seeks support by appealing to popular passions and prejudices
Lacking the social graces and sophistication of the city
An additional tax on something already taxed, and income
Country who loses war pays for damages caused by it
-Germany in the Treaty of Versailles
Wealthy, influential person in business/industry
-ex: oil magnate
Being kept down by force
-Espionage and Sedition Acts, strikes
Journalist, head of Committee on Public Info, propaganda on war mobilization
Eugene V. Debs
Socialist leader who won a million votes as presidential candidate in prison for antiwar activities (Espionage and Sedition acts)
Henry Cabot Lodge
Senator who fought to keep America out of the League of Nations
Commander in Chief of the American Expeditionary force over seas in WWI
Warren G. Harding
Ohio senator, then President in 1920
-Corrupt term, Ohio Gang
-Died in office and VP Coolidge took over
A. Mitchell Palmer
Attorney General; Accused many people during Red Scare
-Saw red too easily, Fighting Quaker
Political leader- Founded the United Negro Improvement Association - Promoted American Black resettlement in "Homeland"
Robert La Follette
Leader of Liberal 3rd party (Progressives) who attracted little support outside of the farm belt
Critic of FDR, Louisiana senator and popular mass agitator who promised to make "Every Man a King" at expense of the Wealthy- "Share the Wealth"
John Maynard Keynes
British Economist whose theories helped justify New Deal Deficit spending
-Thought to create relief, you must spend