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List characteristics shared by all plants

multicellular, eukaryotes, with cell walls of cellulose

Living on land required plants to have what ability?

the ability to require, transport, conserve water

How do bryophyets obtain water?

draw in water by osmosis

without gaseous exchange, what would plants be unable to do?

they would not be able carry out photosynthesis

In bryophytes, what is the name of the structure that functions like a root?


What is a plant?

chlorophyll a and b

What does a plant use the energy of the sun for?

the ability to carry out photosynthesis

What function do bryophytes need water for?

it is the function for reproduction

From where did the first plants evolve from?

green algae

In liverworts, what structures produce eggs and sperm?


What is the sperm-producing structure of a byophyte?


What is a protenma?

a large group of tangled green filaments

What are gemmas?

small multicellular reproductive structures

What are xylem & ploem?

vascular tissue

Horsetails have vascular tissue but do not produce what?


What structure in ferns is diploid?


What are tracheids?

a new type of cell to conduct water

Where are fern spores produced?


Hoe do seed plants differ from all other plants?

They don't have to have water for fertilization

What type of surviving seed plants is most ancient?


Which group of gymnosperms produces produces the most exposed seeds?


What does the number of seed leaves distinguish between?

monocots (one seed leaf) and dicots (two seed leaves)

Name the type of plant that lives the longest:


Club mosses are what type of plant?

seedless vascular plants

What structure contains a plant embryo, food supply and protective?


What happened when land environments became drier millions of years ago?

mosses and ferns became extinct

What are the four groups of gymnosperms?

gnetophytes, cycads, ginkgoes, conifers

Angiosperms produce seeds inside of protective structures called what?


What is a monocot?

has one seed leaf

Flowering plants that complete a life cycle in 1 growing season are called:


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