Ch. 22 Biology
List characteristics shared by all plants
multicellular, eukaryotes, with cell walls of cellulose
Living on land required plants to have what ability?
the ability to require, transport, conserve water
How do bryophyets obtain water?
draw in water by osmosis
without gaseous exchange, what would plants be unable to do?
they would not be able carry out photosynthesis
In bryophytes, what is the name of the structure that functions like a root?
What is a plant?
chlorophyll a and b
What does a plant use the energy of the sun for?
the ability to carry out photosynthesis
What function do bryophytes need water for?
it is the function for reproduction
From where did the first plants evolve from?
In liverworts, what structures produce eggs and sperm?
What is the sperm-producing structure of a byophyte?
What is a protenma?
a large group of tangled green filaments
What are gemmas?
small multicellular reproductive structures
What are xylem & ploem?
Horsetails have vascular tissue but do not produce what?
What structure in ferns is diploid?
What are tracheids?
a new type of cell to conduct water
Where are fern spores produced?
Hoe do seed plants differ from all other plants?
They don't have to have water for fertilization
What type of surviving seed plants is most ancient?
Which group of gymnosperms produces produces the most exposed seeds?
What does the number of seed leaves distinguish between?
monocots (one seed leaf) and dicots (two seed leaves)
Name the type of plant that lives the longest:
Club mosses are what type of plant?
seedless vascular plants
What structure contains a plant embryo, food supply and protective?
What happened when land environments became drier millions of years ago?
mosses and ferns became extinct
What are the four groups of gymnosperms?
gnetophytes, cycads, ginkgoes, conifers
Angiosperms produce seeds inside of protective structures called what?
What is a monocot?
has one seed leaf
Flowering plants that complete a life cycle in 1 growing season are called: