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Math
Statistics
stat ch 1
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Terms in this set (42)
statistics
the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions.
data
consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses.
Two Types of Data Sets
1)population
2)sample
population
the collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest.
sample
subset of the population
parameter
a numerical description of a population characteristic
statistic
a numerical description of a sample characteristc
Two Branches of Statistics
1)descriptive statistics
2)inferential statiistics
descriptive statistics
the branch of statistics that involves the organization, summarization, and the display of data.
inferential statistics
the branch of statistics that involves using a sample to draw conclusions about a population "A basic tool in the study of inferential statistics is probability"
Two Types of Data Classification
1)Qualitative
2)Quantitative
Qualitative data
consists of attributes, labels, or non-numerical entries
Quantitative data
consists of numerical measurements or counts
4 levels of measurements
1)nominal
2)ordinal
3)interval
4)ratio
nominal
qualitative only, categorized using names, labels, or qualities. NO math computations
ordinal
qualitative or quantitative, by arranging in order or ranked, but the differences between data entries are not meaningful.
interval
quantitative only, there is order in the differences between data, entries can be calculated
ratio
quantitative only, where the ration of 2 data values can be formed so that one data value can be meaningful, expressed, as a multiple of another
temperature
interval
allergies
nominal
weight
ratio
pain level
ordinal
6 Guidelines to a statistical Study
1)Identify the variables of interest (focus) and the population of the study
2)Develop a detailed plan for collecting the data
3)Collect the data
4)Describe the data
5)Interpret the data
6)Identify any possible errors that may occur
4 Methods of Data Collection
1)Do an observational study
2)Perform an experiment (control group/placebo)
3)Use simulation-ex:dummies for car crashes
4)Use a survey-ex:interview, mail, or use the phone
3 Elements of a well designed experiment
1)Control
2)Randomization
3)Replication
Techniques Used to obtain unbiased results
1)Blind Study
2)Double Blind Study
3)Randomization
4)Replication
Blind Study
a technique where the subjects do not know whether they are receiving a treatment or a placebo
Double Blind Study
neither the experimenter nor the subject know if the subjects are receiving the treatment or placebo
Randomization
is a process of randomly assigning subjects to different treatment groups
2 types of Randomization
1)randomized block design
2)matched pair design
randomized block design
divide subjects with similar characteristics into blocks, and then w/in each block, randomly assign subjects to treatment groups
matched pair designs
where subjects are paired up according to similarity
Replication
is the repetition of an experiment under the same or similar conditions
Sampling Techniques
1)census
2)sampling
census
is a count or measure of an entire population
-costly
-difficult to perform
sampling
a count or measure of part of a population and is more commonly used in statistical studies
-doesn't cost a lot
-easy to perform
4 sample methods
1)simple random sample
2)stratified sampling
3)cluster sampling
4)systematic sampling
*convenience sampling
simple random sample
a sample in which every possible sample of the same size has the same chance of being selected
-with replacement
-w/out replacement
stratified sampling
used when it is important for the sample to have members from each segment of the population called strata
-ex:age, gender, ethnicity, etc
cluster sampling
used when the population falls into naturally occurring subgroups each having similar characteristics
-ex:different sections of the same course, or branches of a bank
systematic sampling
a sampling which each member of the population is assigned a number
-ex:you pick every 5th person
-avoid this sampling if any regularly occurring pattern is in the data
convenience sampling
consists only of available members of the population
-NOT recommended
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