How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

168 terms

Medical Terminology Chapter 9 Terms: The Urinary System

STUDY
PLAY
homeostasis
the process through which the body maintains a constant internal environment. these functions include: maintaining the proper balance of water, salts and acids in the body by filtering the blood as it flows through the kidneys, constantly filtering the blood to remove urea and other waste materials from the bloodstream and converting these waste products and excess fluids into urine in the kidneys and excreting them from the body via the urinary bladder
home/o
WORD PART:
constant
-stasis
WORD PART:
control
urea
the major waste product of protein metabolism
kidneys
constantly filter the blood to remove waste products and excess water
renal
pertaining to the kidneys
ren/o
WORD PART:
kidney
retroperitoneal
pertaining to being located behind the peritoneum
renal cortex
the outer region of the kidney. it contains over one million microscopic units called nephrons
medulla
the inner region of the kidney; it contains most of the urine-collecting tubules
nephron
a functional unit of the kidney. these units form urine by the process of filtration, reabsorption and secretion
reabsorption
the return to the blood of some of the substances that were removed through filtration
glomerulus
a cluster of capillaries surrounded by a cup-shaped membrane called the bowman's capsule
urochrome
the pigment that gives urine its yellow-amber or straw color. the color of urine can be influenced by normal factors such as the amount of liquid consumed, and can also be changed by diseases and medications
ur/o
WORD PART:
urine
- chrome
WORD PART:
color
renal pelvis
the funnel-shaped area within each kidney that is surrounded by renal cortex and medulla. this is where the newly formed urine collects before it flows into the ureters
ureters
two narrow tubes, each about 10-12 inches long, which transport urine from the kidney to the bladder. peristalsis moves urine down each ureter to the bladder. urine drains from the ureters into the bladder through the ureteral orifices in the wall of the urinary bladder
urinary bladder
a hollow muscular organ that is a reservoir for urine before it is excreted from the body. the bladder is located in the anterior portion of the pelvic cavity behind the pubic symphysis. the bladder stores about one pint of urine. like the stomach, the bladder is lined with rugae
trigone
the smooth triangular area on the inner surface of the bladder located between the opening of the ureters and urethra
urethra
the tube extending from the bladder to outside of the body
urinary sphincters
one located at either end of the urethra, control the flow of urine from the bladder into the urethra and out of the urethra through the urethral meatus
urethral meatus
the external opening of the urethra
female urethra
approximately 1.5 inches long, urethral meatus is located between the clitoris and the opening of the vagina. the urethra conveys only urine
male urethra
approximately 8 inches line, urethral meatus located at the tip of the penis. urethra transport urine and semen
prostate gland
part of the male reproductive system, surrounds the urethra
urination
voiding; micturition; the normal process of excreting urine. it requires the coordinated contraction of the bladder muscles and relaxation of the sphincters. this action forces the urine through the urethra and out through the urinary meatus
nephrologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the kidneys
nephr/o
WORD PART:
kidneys
urologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the urinary system of females and the genitourinary system of males
genitourinary
refers to both the genital and urinary organs
renal failure
the inability of one or both kidneys to perform their functions. the body cannot replace damaged nephrons, and when too many nephrons have been destroyed, the result is kidney failure
uremia
uremic poisoning; a toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which kidney function is compromised and urea is retained in the blood
acute renal failure (ARF)
has sudden onset and is characterized by uremia. it can be fatal if not reversed promptly. this condition can be caused by many factors, including a sudden drop in blood volume or blood pressure due to injury or surgery
chronic renal failure
the progressive loss of renal function, sometimes leading to uremia, which is caused by a variety of conditions such as kidney disease, diabetes mellitus or hypertension
end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
refers to the late stages of chronic renal failure in which there is irreversible loss of the function of both kidneys. without dialysis or a kidney transplant, this condition is fatal
hemolytic uremic syndrome
a condition in which hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia cause acute renal failure and possibly death. this syndrome can be the result of an e.coli infection in young children and the elderly
nephrotic syndrome
a condition in which very high levels of protein are lost in the urine and abnormally low levels of protein are present in the blood. this is the result of damage to the kidney's glomeruli
nephrosis
any degenerative kidney disease causing nephrotic syndrome without inflammation
anuria
the absence of urine formation in the kidneys
edema
excessive fluid in the body tissues
hyperproteinuria
the presence of abnormally high concentrations of protein in the urine
hypoproteinemia
the presence of abnormally low concentrations of protein in the blood
nephropathy
any disease of the kidney
diabetic nephropathy
a kidney disease characterized by hypoproteinuria, which is the result of thickening and hardening of the glomeruli caused by long-term diabetes mellitus
hydronephrosis
the dilation of one or both kidneys. this condition can be caused by problems associated with the backing up of urine due to an obstruction such as a stricture in the ureter or the blockage in the opening from the bladder to the urethra, or in the urethra itself
stricture
an abnormal band of tissue that narrows or completely blocks a body passage
nephrectasis
the distention of the pelvis of the kidney
distention
enlarged or stretched
nephritis
inflammation of the kidney or kidneys. the two most common causes are infection or an autoimmune disease
glomerulonephritis
bright's disease; a type of kidney disease caused by inflammation of the glomeruli that causes red blood cells and proteins to leak into the urine
glomerul/o
WORD PART:
glomeruli
nephroptosis
floating kidney; the prolapse of a kidney
-ptosis
WORD PART:
droop or prolapse
nephropyosis
pyonephrosis; the suppuration (formation or discharge of pus) of the kidney
polycystic kidney disease
a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys. these cysts, which slowly replace much of the mass of the kidney, reduce the kidney function, and this eventually leads to kidney failure
renal colic
an acute pain in the kidney area that is caused by blockage during the passage of a kidney stone
colic
spasmodic pains in the abdomen
wilms tumor
a malignant tumor of the kidney that occurs in young children. there is a high cure rate for this condition when this condition is treated promptly
stone
calculus; an abnormal mineral deposit that has formed within the body. they vary in size from small sand-like granules to the size of marbles and are named for the organ or tissue where they are located. in the urinary system, calculi formed when waste products in the urine crystalize
nephrolithiasis
the presence of stones in the kidney. as these stones travel with the urine, they are named for the location where they become lodged
nephrolith
renal calculus; kidney stone; a stone found in the kidney
ureterolith
a stone located anywhere along the ureter
ureter/o
WORD PART:
ureter
cystolith
a stone located within the urinary bladder
cyst/o
WORD PART:
bladder
hydroureter
the distention of the ureter with urine that cannot flow because the ureter is blocked
ureterectasis
the distention of a ureter
ureterorrhagia
the discharge of blood from the ureter
urinary tract infection (UTI)
usually begins in the bladder; however, these infections can affect all, or parts, of the urinary system. these infections occur more frequently in women because the urethra is short and located near the openings of the vagina and rectum
urethritis
an inflammation of the urethra
urethr/o
WORD PART:
urethra
cystitis
an inflammation of the bladder
pyelitis
an inflammation of the renal pelvis
pyel/o
WORD PART:
renal pelvis
pyelonephritis
an inflammation of both the renal pelvis and of the kidney. this is usually caused by a bacterial infection that has spread upward from the bladder
cystalgia
cystodynia; pain in the urinary bladder
cystocele
fallen bladder; a hernia of the bladder through the vaginal wall
interstitial cystitis
a chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder. the symptoms of this condition are similar to those of cystitis; however, they do not respond to traditional treatment
trigonitis
an inflammation of the urinary bladder that is localized in the region of the trigone
trigon/o
WORD PART:
trigone
vesicovaginal fistula
an abnormal opening between the bladder and vagina that allows the constant flow of urine from the bladder into the vagina
vesic/o
WORD PART:
bladder
vagin/o
WORD PART:
vagina
neurogenic bladder
a urinary problem caused by interference with the normal nerve pathways associated with urination
-genic
WORD PART:
created by
urethrorrhagia
bleeding from the urethra
urethrorrhea
an abnormal discharge from the urethra. this condition is associated with some sexually transmitted diseases
urethrostenosis
narrowing of the urethra
epispadias
a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening. in the male, the urethral opening is located on the upper surface of the penis. in the female, the urethral opening is in the region of the clitoris
hypospadias
a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening. in the male, the urethral opening is on the under surface of the penis. in the female, the urethral opening is into the vagina
paraspadias
a congenital abnormality in males in which the urethral opening is on the side of the penis
benign prostatic hypertrophy
benign prostatic hyperplasia; enlarged prostate; prostatomegaly; an abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland that occurs most often in men over age 50. this condition can make urination difficult
hypertrophy
the general increase in bulk of a body part or organ that is not due to tumor formation
prostatism
the condition of having symptoms resulting from compression or obstruction of the urethra due to benign prostatic hypertrophy
prostat/o
WORD PART:
prostate gland
prostate cancer
one of the most common cancers among men. this disease can grow slowly with no symptoms, or it can grow aggressively and spread throughout the body
prostatitis
an inflammation of the prostate gland
diuresis
the increased output of urine
diur/o
WORD PART:
increasing the output of urine
dysuria
difficult or painful urination
-uria
WORD PART:
urination
enuresis
the involuntary discharge of urine
-uresis
WORD PART:
urination
nocturnal enuresis
bed-wetting; urination incontinence during sleep
nocturia
excessive urination during the night
oliguria
scanty urination
olig/o
WORD PART:
scanty
polyuria
excessive urination
urinary hesitancy
difficulty in starting a urinary stream. this condition is most common in older men with enlarged prostate glands
bashful bladder syndrome
in younger people, the inability to urinate when another person is present
urinary retention
the inability to empty the bladder. this condition is also more common in men, and is frequently associated with an enlarged prostate gland
incontinence
the inability to control the excretion of urine and feces
urinary incontinence
the inability to control the voiding of urine
stress incontinence
the inability to control the voiding or urine under physical stress such as running, sneezing, laughing or coughing
overactive bladder
urge incontinence; occurs when the detrusor muscle in the wall of the bladder is too active. symptoms include urinary frequency, urgency and accidental urination due to a sudden and unstoppable need to urinate
urinalysis
the examination of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements
bladder ultrasound
the use of a handheld ultrasound transducer to measure the amount of urine remaining in the bladder after urination. a normal bladder holds between 300 and 400 ccs of urine. when more than this amount is still present after urination, the bladder is described as being distended
catheterization
the insertion of a tube into the bladder in order to procure a sterile specimen for diagnostic purposes. it is also used to remove urine from the bladder when the patient is unable to urinate for other reasons. another use is to place medication into the bladder
cystography
a radiographic examination of the bladder after instillation of a contract medium via a urethral catheter
cystoscopy
the visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope. a specialized cystoscope is also for treatment procedures such as the removal of tumors or the reduction of an enlarged prostate gland
intravenous pyelogram
excretory urography; a radiographic study of the kidneys and ureters. a contrast medium is administered intravenously to clearly define these structures in the resulting image. this examination is used to diagnose changes in the urinary tract resulting from kidney stones, infections, enlarged prostate, tumors and internal injuries
computed tomography
CAT scan; more commonly used as a primary tool for evaluation of the urinary system because it can be rapidly performed and provides additional imaging of the abdomen, which may reveal other potential sources for the patient's symptoms
KUB (kidneys, ureters, bladder)
flat-plate of the abdomen; a radiographic study of these structures without the use of a contract medium
retrograde urography
a radiograph of the urinary system taken after dye has been in the urethra through a sterile catheter and caused to flow upward through the urinary tract
voiding cystourethrography
a diagnostic procedure in which fluoroscope is used to examine the flow of urine from the bladder and through the urethra. this procedure is often performed after cystography
digital rectal examination
performed on men to screen for prostate enlargement, infection and indications of prostate cancer
prostate-specific antigen blood test
PSA test; used to screen for prostate cancer. it measures the amount of prostate-specific antigen that is present in the blood specimen. the prostate-specific antigen is a protein produced by the cells of the prostate gland. the higher a man's PSA level, the more likely it is that cancer is present
diuretics
medications administered to increase urine secretion in order to rid the body of excess water and salt
dialysis
a procedure to remove waste products from the blood of a patient whose kidneys no longer function
dia-
WORD PART:
complete or through
hemodialysis
the process by which waste products are filtered directly from the patient's blood. treatment is performed on a hemodialysis unit which is frequently referred to as an artificial kidney. a shunt implanted in the patient's arm is connected to the hemodialysis unit and arterial blood flows through the filters of the unit. the filters contain dialysate, which is a solution made up of water and electrolytes. this solution cleanses the blood by removing waste products and excess fluids. the cleansed blood is returned to the body through a vein. these treatments take several hours and must be repeated about three times a week
electrolytes
the salts that conduct electricity and are found in the body fluid, tissue and blood
peritoneal dialysis
the lining of the peritoneal cavity acts as the filter to remove waste from the blood. the dialysate solution flows into the peritoneal cavity and the fluid is exchanged through a catheter implanted in the abdominal wall. this type of dialysis is used for renal failure and certain types of poisoning
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
provides ongoing dialysis as the patient goes about his or her daily activities. in this procedure, a dialysate solution is instilled from a plastic container worn under the patient's clothing. about every 4 hours, the used solution is drained back into this bag and the bag is discarded. a new bag is then attached, the solution is instilled, and the process continues
continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis
uses a machine to cycle the dialysate fluid during the night while the patient sleeps
nephrolysis
the freeing of a kidney from adhesions OR a pathologic condition in which there is the destruction of renal cells
nephropexy
nephrorrhaphy; the surgical fixation of a floating kidney
nephrostomy
the establishment of an opening from the pelvis of the kidney to the exterior of the body. in a kidney affected by hydronephrosis, this allows bypassing of the ureter because the urine from the kidney is drained directly through the back
pyeloplasty
the surgical repair of the renal pelvis
pyelotomy
a surgical incision into the renal pelvis. this procedure is performed to correct an obstruction of the junction between the renal pelvis and ureter
renal transplantation
the grafting of a donor kidney into the body to replace the recipient's failed kidneys. a single transplanted kidney, from either a living or nonliving donor, is capable of adequately performing all kidney functions
extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)
the destruction of stones with the use of high-energy ultrasonic waves traveling through water or gel. the fragments of these stones are then excreted in the urine
lithotripsy
to crush a stone
lith/o
WORD PART:
stone
nephrolithotomy
the surgical removal of a nephrolith
percutaneous nephrolithotomy
performed by making a small incision in the back and inserting a nephroscope to crush and remove a kidney stone
ureterectomy
the surgical removal or a ureter
ureteroplasty
the surgical repair of a ureter
ureterorrhaphy
the surgical suturing of a ureter
cystectomy
the surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder
cystopexy
the surgical fixation of the bladder to the abdominal wall
cystorrhaphy
the surgical suturing of the bladder
lithotomy
a surgical incision for the removal of a stone from the bladder
catheterization
performed to withdraw urine for diagnostic purposes, to control incontinence, or to place fluid, such a a chemotherapy solution, into the bladder
urethral catheterization
performed by inserting a tube along the urethra and into the bladder
indwelling catheter
a catheter that remains inside the body for a prolonged time
suprapubic catheterization
the placement of a catheter into the bladder through a small incision made through the abdominal wall just above the pubic bone
meatotomy
a surgical incision made in the urinary meatus to enlarge the opening
urethropexy
the surgical fixation of the urethra. this procedure is usually performed to correct urinary stress incontinence
urethrostomy
the surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin
urethrotomy
a surgical incision into the urethra for relief of a stricture
ablation
the term used to describe some types of treatment of prostate cancer, describes the removal of a body part of the destruction of its function by surgery, hormones, drugs, heat, chemicals, electrocautery or other methods
prostatectomy
the surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland. this procedure is performed to treat prostate cancer or to reduce an enlarged prostate gland
radical prostatectomy
performed through the abdomen, the surgical removal of the entire prostate gland, the seminal vessels and some surrounding tissues
transurethral prostatectomy
TURP; the removal of an overgrowth of tissue from the prostate gland through a rectoscope
kegel exercises
a series of pelvic muscle exercises used to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor to control urinary stress incontinence in women
bladder retraining
a program of urinating on a schedule with increasingly longer time intervals between scheduled urination. the goal is to reestablish voluntary bladder control and to break the cycle of frequency, urgency and urge incontinence