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Olive Branch Petition

last conciliatory appeal to King by 2nd Continental Congress, approved quickly, but followed y "The Declarationof the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms"

Prohibitory Act

act passed by Parliament, closed all colonies to overseas trade and made no concessions other than offer to pardon rebels, moved popular opinion in direction of war

Conway Cabal

during winter at Valley Forge, some congressmen and officers conspired to replace Washington, Conway was one of the alleged leaders

Benedict Arnold

trusted by Washington, but believed the cause was hopelessin later years of war, conspired with British to betray West Point, plan found out and he fled

Sir William Howe

British commander, mistakes cost Britain War, he abandoned his battle plan, allowed Washington to regroup, didn't attack at Valley Forge, some believed that he sympathized with colonists and didn't want to win the war

John Burgoyne

British who had to fight Northen push of Howe's battle plan after Howe bailed, experienced a few successes them 2 defeats, surrendered to Gates at Saratoga Oct 17, 1777

"militia diplomats"

not professional dioplomats - just colonists who were sent abroad to get trade agreements with European nations - nations would have to recognize US as an independent nation

Joseph and Mary Brant

brother and sister, members of Mohawk Nation, persuaded tribe to contibute to the British cause, attracted support of Seneca and Cayuga, helped Burgoyne, weakened Iroquois Conferedation because most wanted to stay neutral

Caron de Beaumarchais

French actor turned secret agent, helped through the creation of a bogus trading firm, had blessing of King Louis XVI

Sir Henry Clinton

replaced Howe in 1778, moved army back to NY, Ordered Cornwallis to return to Yorktown after bad defeat, Washington trapped him and he surrendered

LOrd Cornwallis

Clinton's Commander in the South, abandoned Carolina campaign and ordered to Yorktown, later surrendered to Washington

Francis Marion

with Thomas Sumter and Andrew Pickens patriot guerillas who harrassed British troops as they moved through the Carolinas

Nathanael Green

replaced Gates after Gates lost to Cornwallis, Quaker, former blacksmith, probably the ablest of the american generals after Washington, diuvided american forces into small, fast moving contingents and refrained from open battle, finally fought Cornwallis at Guilford, NC - withdrew, but caused Cornwallis to lose so many men he was ordered to Yorktown

Lemuel Hayes

black writer who sought to articulate the lessons of the revolution to Blacks

Dragging Canoe

led Cherodees in western Carolina and Virginia to attack outlying settlements in 1776, militias forced him to flee west across Tenn River, remaining gave up more land

Camp Followers

women who followed their men by choice or economics into war, kept morale up and performed household tasks

Judith Sargent Murray

leading essayist in late 18th century,wrote in 1779 that women's minds were as good as men and they deserved to be educated, defended Mary Wollstonecraft

Vindication of the Rights of Women

written by Mary Wollencraft in 1792 regarding women's rights

Virginia Statute of Religious Liberty

1786, written by Thomas Jefferson, called for a complete separation of church and state

Small states/large states

Articles of Confederation - small states had equal representation with large states


Ordinance of 1785, divided territory north of the Ohio River into townships which were then divided into 36 indentical sections, 4 sections for gov't, rest sold- revenue to create a public school

Ordinance of 1784

based on proposal by Thomas Jefferson, divided western territory into 10 self-govening districts which could petition Congress for statehood when its pop equaled the numver of free inhabitants of the smallest existing state

Little Turtle

famed Miami warrior, led troops to defeat US forces near what is now western Ohio

Ohio and Scioto Companies

bought much of the land from Congress under the Ordinances of 1784 and 1785,

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

previous ordinances failed, created single Northwest Territoy which could be divided into 3-5 territories, 60,000 for statehood, guaranteed freedom of religion, right to trial by jury, and prohibited slavery

Treaty of Greenville

signed by Miami indians, gave up lots of land - US affirmed that land could only be given up by Indians themselves

Robert Morris

Head of Confederation's Treasury, called for 5% duty on imported goods to fund war debt, failed because Congress was afraid Morris would control too much money, Morris's group them chose not to be active in Confederation

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