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Olive Branch Petition
last conciliatory appeal to King by 2nd Continental Congress, approved quickly, but followed y "The Declarationof the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms"
act passed by Parliament, closed all colonies to overseas trade and made no concessions other than offer to pardon rebels, moved popular opinion in direction of war
during winter at Valley Forge, some congressmen and officers conspired to replace Washington, Conway was one of the alleged leaders
trusted by Washington, but believed the cause was hopelessin later years of war, conspired with British to betray West Point, plan found out and he fled
Sir William Howe
British commander, mistakes cost Britain War, he abandoned his battle plan, allowed Washington to regroup, didn't attack at Valley Forge, some believed that he sympathized with colonists and didn't want to win the war
British who had to fight Northen push of Howe's battle plan after Howe bailed, experienced a few successes them 2 defeats, surrendered to Gates at Saratoga Oct 17, 1777
not professional dioplomats - just colonists who were sent abroad to get trade agreements with European nations - nations would have to recognize US as an independent nation
Joseph and Mary Brant
brother and sister, members of Mohawk Nation, persuaded tribe to contibute to the British cause, attracted support of Seneca and Cayuga, helped Burgoyne, weakened Iroquois Conferedation because most wanted to stay neutral
Caron de Beaumarchais
French actor turned secret agent, helped through the creation of a bogus trading firm, had blessing of King Louis XVI
Sir Henry Clinton
replaced Howe in 1778, moved army back to NY, Ordered Cornwallis to return to Yorktown after bad defeat, Washington trapped him and he surrendered
Clinton's Commander in the South, abandoned Carolina campaign and ordered to Yorktown, later surrendered to Washington
with Thomas Sumter and Andrew Pickens patriot guerillas who harrassed British troops as they moved through the Carolinas
replaced Gates after Gates lost to Cornwallis, Quaker, former blacksmith, probably the ablest of the american generals after Washington, diuvided american forces into small, fast moving contingents and refrained from open battle, finally fought Cornwallis at Guilford, NC - withdrew, but caused Cornwallis to lose so many men he was ordered to Yorktown
led Cherodees in western Carolina and Virginia to attack outlying settlements in 1776, militias forced him to flee west across Tenn River, remaining gave up more land
women who followed their men by choice or economics into war, kept morale up and performed household tasks
Judith Sargent Murray
leading essayist in late 18th century,wrote in 1779 that women's minds were as good as men and they deserved to be educated, defended Mary Wollstonecraft
Virginia Statute of Religious Liberty
1786, written by Thomas Jefferson, called for a complete separation of church and state
Small states/large states
Articles of Confederation - small states had equal representation with large states
Ordinance of 1785, divided territory north of the Ohio River into townships which were then divided into 36 indentical sections, 4 sections for gov't, rest sold- revenue to create a public school
Ordinance of 1784
based on proposal by Thomas Jefferson, divided western territory into 10 self-govening districts which could petition Congress for statehood when its pop equaled the numver of free inhabitants of the smallest existing state
Ohio and Scioto Companies
bought much of the land from Congress under the Ordinances of 1784 and 1785,
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
previous ordinances failed, created single Northwest Territoy which could be divided into 3-5 territories, 60,000 for statehood, guaranteed freedom of religion, right to trial by jury, and prohibited slavery
Treaty of Greenville
signed by Miami indians, gave up lots of land - US affirmed that land could only be given up by Indians themselves
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