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Unit 7 Structure and Function of Nervous System
Terms in this set (33)
A threadlike extension of a neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body.
The endpoint of a neuron where neurotransmitters are stored
ability to transmit an impulse from one structure to the next
a neuron's bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
enzyme metabolizes neurotransmitter so it can no longer fit into the receptor on the receiving cell
ability to respond to a stimulus
in old cells
stuck in the cytoplasm
A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
the support cells of the nervous system; also called glial cells (from glia meaning "glue")
Individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information.
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
sensory receptors that enable the perception of pain in response to potentially harmful stimuli
A process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane.
Rapid transmission of a nerve impulse along an axon, resulting from the action potential jumping from one node of Ranvier to another, skipping the myelin-sheathed regions of membrane.
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
Cone shaped region of an axon where it joins the cell body.
Largest part of a typical neuron; contains the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm
respond to chemicals
Catalysts for chemical reactions in living things
Sensory receptors responsible for sensing distortion in body tissues.
additional external myelin sheath that is formed by Schwann cells and found only on axons in the peripheral nervous system
A node of Ranvier (myelin sheath gap)
is a bare region of axonal membrane in myelinated axons only.
Type of glial cell in the CNS that wrap axons in a myelin sheath.
respond to light
the cell membrane opposite the terminal button in a synapse; the membrane of the cell that receives the message
the specialized membrane of the axon terminal of the neuron that transmits information by releasing neurotransmitter
protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action in response
produce myelin in PNS
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
The narrow gap that separates the presynaptic neuron from the postsynaptic cell.
tiny enlargement at the end of an axon that secretes a neurotransmitter
respond to changes in temperature
Small membrane-bound sac that functions in moving products into, out of, and within a cell.
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