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31 terms

Linguistics Exam 2

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morpheme
the smallest unit of language that carries information about meaning or function
morphology
the study of the system of categories and rules involved in word formation and interpretation.
lexicon
speaker's mental dictionary containing information about the syntactic properties meaning and phonological representation of a languages words.
zero morpheme
morpheme without phonological shape. Able to change part of speech w/out affix
allomorph
alternative form of a morpheme
morphophonemic
ways that specific morphemes change--not applying to all sounds
phoneme
the contrastive segmental unit with predictable phonetic variant
phone
any sound in human language
allophone
variants of a phone
contrastive distribution
when sounds occur in the same position and envirtonment in a string of sounds
minimal pairs
a pair of words with distinct meanings that differ by only one segment found in the same position in each form
free variation
the free alternation of and/or phonemes in a given environment
complementary distribution
the distribution of allophones in their respective phonetic environments such as that one never appears in the same phonetic context as the other
natural classes
a class of sounds sharing features or phonetic properties
major classes
large groups of natural classes (ie. vowels)
distinctive features
feature that distinguishes one phoneme from another.
syllable
position and effect of stressed syllables: insertion and deletion
affixation
words formed by the combination of bound affixes and free morphemes
compounding
words formed by the combination of two or more independent words
reduplication
words formed by doubling on entire word or part of the word (hocus-pocus)
ablaut
irregular forms by the vowel change; vowel alternation that makes a grammatical contrast (sing/sang)
suppletion
irregular forms by substitutions (are/was go/went)
blends
compounds that are less than coumpound; created from already existing forms (smoke fog = smog)
ellipsis
removal of redundant part (china)
back formation
subtracting an affix (peddle)
folk etymology
changes based on people's conception of certain words or how the word works
hyper correct
attribution of some form to a particular social group and stats
acronyms
NASA
eponym
comes from someone's name
borrowing
make another language's words your own
grammaticalization
content word becomes a funcional word and perhaps a bound suffix (will>residue> i'll)