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Chapter 43: Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
Terms in this set (189)
1. Which of the following is true of total body water?
Overweight people have lower water content per kilogram of body weight than
2. The total fluid or water content of the human body ranges from _____ of its total weight.
45% to 75%
3. When comparing the volume of the various body fluids, the correct order going from highest
to lowest in total volume would be:
intracellular fluid, interstitial fluid, plasma.
4. In young adults, the percentage of body weight composed of water will average about _____
for males and _____ for females.
5. Cerebrospinal fluid is part of the _____ fluid.
6. Which of the following body fluid compartments has the same volume (percentage of body
weight) in the infant, the adult male, and the adult female?
7. Ringer solution is often described as normal saline solution modified by the addition of:
potassium and calcium.
8. Which of the following is not one of the seven basic solutions used for parenteral therapy?
9. Which of the following is NOT a method used for Parenteral administration?
10. Parenteral solutions are given to: meet current maintenance needs for nutrients, fluids, and electrolytes,
replace past losses, replace concurrent losses (additional losses that are in excess of maintenance
do all of the above.
11. Water normally leaves the body through _____ exits.
12. The two factors that determine urine volume are:
the glomerular filtration rate and the rate of water reabsorption by the renal
13. Abnormal conditions that cause fluid and electrolyte output to exceed input include all the
drinking liquids too fast.
14. Which of the following substances is released by the juxtaglomerular cells?
15. When the adrenal cortex is stimulated to increase its secretion of aldosterone, the first thing
that happens is a(n):
increase in the kidney tubule reabsorption of sodium.
16. Juxtaglomerular cells are located in the:
17. The thirst center, which contains specialized cells called osmoreceptors, is located in the:
Which of the following sites of fluid loss can be automatically adjusted according to fluid
19. Which of the following electrolytes is not a cation?
20. The composition of sodium in the blood plasma is equal to _____ mEq/L.
21. Which of the following pairs are almost identical when compared chemically?
Plasma and interstitial fluid
22. What is the most abundant cation in extracellular fluid?
23. What is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid?
24. The most important difference between blood plasma and interstitial fluid, when compared
blood contains appreciable amounts of protein anions.
25. What is the most abundant anion in the extracellular fluid?
26. In accordance with the physical laws governing filtration and osmosis, which of the following
statements is true?
Blood colloid osmotic pressure tends to draw fluid back into the capillaries.
27. Which of the following is the formula representing the Starling law of capillaries?
(BHP + IFCOP) - (IFHP + BCOP) = EFP
28. As related to the Starling law, which of the following is the greatest pressure at the arterial
end of the capillaries?
Blood hydrostatic pressure
29. Which of the following statements is(are) not true?
Men have less body water than women do.
30. As related to the Starling law, which of the following has the greatest effect on water
reentering the capillaries?
Blood colloid osmotic pressure
31. When the effective filtration pressure equals zero:
no net transfer of water occurs between blood and interstitial fluid.
32. Edema is defined as abnormally large amounts of fluid in the:
33. Which large molecules are retained by the selectively permeable cell membrane?
34. Movement of water and solutes between ECF and ICF spaces is influenced by all of the following except:
All of the above influence movement.
35. Edema may occur when: sodium is retained in the extracellular fluid as a result of increased aldosterone
secretion or after serious renal disease such as acute glomerulonephritis, an increase in capillary blood pressure occurs, a decrease in the concentration of plasma proteins normally retained in the blood
d. all of the above occur.
36. Which body location is not one that is usually impacted by edema?
37. When the posterior lobe of the pituitary is stimulated to increase its secretion of ADH, the first
event to occur is a(n):
increase in the kidney tubule reabsorption of water.
38. The major organ that balances sodium and potassium in the body is the:
39. When the sum of the blood hydrostatic pressure and the interstitial fluid colloid osmotic
pressure is greater than the sum of the interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure and the blood
colloid osmotic pressure, fluid shifts out of the interstitial fluid and into the blood.
39. Aged individuals of either sex may have less total body water because of their:
decreased muscle mass.
40. Which of the following is not considered a "transcellular fluid"?
41. The body fluid that stays constant as a percentage of body weight throughout life is:
42. If two electrodes charged with a weak current were placed in a solution of NaCl, the negative
electrode would attract the:
43. If two electrodes charged with a weak current were placed in a solution of NaCl, the negative
electrode would attract:
44. If two electrodes charged with a weak current were placed in a solution of NaCl, the positive
electrode would attract:
c. chloride ions.
d. Both B and C are correct.
45. If two electrodes charged with a weak current were placed in a solution of NaCl, the positive
electrode would attract:
46. The ion with the least total concentration in body fluids is:
47. With an equal milligram percent in solution, calcium would have a(n) _____ milliequivalent
There is not enough information to determine the milliequivalent.
48. Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II in the:
49. Which of the following two forces tend to move fluid out of the blood vessel?
Blood hydrostatic pressure and interstitial fluid colloid pressure
50. Which of the following two forces tend to move fluid into the blood vessel?
Blood colloid pressure and interstitial fluid colloid pressure
51. The mechanism of action for aldosterone and the mechanism of action for ADH differ because
ADH regulates water whereas aldosterone regulates:
52. Which of the following is not a cause of hypervolemia?
53. An intravenous addition of sodium can be used to treat:
54. Potassium-rich foods can be used to treat:
55. Which of the following is not true of sodium chloride (NaCl)?
It has the same type of bonds as glucose.
56. Which of the following is not true of glucose?
None of the above are true of glucose.
57. Which type of tissue has the least amount of water?
58. Which of the following is not considered an extracellular fluid?
Lymph, Plasma, The aqueous fluid of the eye, All of the above are considered extracellular fluids.
59. The subfornical organ is located in what part of the central nervous system?
Roof of the third ventricle of the brain
60. Angiotensinogen is converted to angiotensin I in the:
61. Which of the following sites of fluid loss can be automatically adjusted according to fluid
62. Cerebrospinal fluid is part of the:
extracellular fluid because it consists mainly of plasma found in blood vessels and
63. In accordance with the physical laws governing filtration and osmosis, which of the following
statements is true?
Blood colloid osmotic pressure tends to draw fluid back into the capillaries.
64. Osmoreceptors assist in controlling homeostasis of body fluids by:
working in the hypothalamus to trigger a conscious sense of dry mouth and thirst.
65. In patients with severe burn injuries, what mechanism is responsible for the increased risk of
A loss of interstitial fluid causing a drain of blood plasma out of the vessels and
into tissue spaces
66. A solution of sodium (Na+
, atomic weight = 23) and a solution of calcium (Ca2+, atomic
weight = 40) have equal mg%. The mEq/L of calcium would be about _____ that of sodium.
1. Salt and glucose are examples of electrolytes found in the body
2. Electrolytes are substances that dissociate in solution.
3. In infants, total body water constitutes approximately 40% of body weight.
4. Plasma, synovial fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid are all examples of extracellular fluid.
5. The volume of interstitial fluid is greater than the volume of plasma.
6. Intracellular fluids constitute about 50% of body weight.
7. In recent years, Ringer solution has frequently been used instead of normal saline.
8. The tonicity of a solution is not important when it is administered subcutaneously.
9. Ingested liquids are the major source of water for the body, followed by water formed from a
catabolism, with a smaller amount coming from water in foods.
10. The principle of fluid balance states that fluid intake normally equals fluid output.
11. Both ADH and aldosterone cause fluid retention.
12. The two major factors that determine urine volume are glomerular filtration rate and blood
13. The thirst center is located in the hypothalamus and SFO of the brain.
14. Osmoreceptors associated with thirst are located in the gastrointestinal tract.
15. Osmoreceptors are cells able to detect an increase in solute concentration in extracellular fluid
caused by water loss.
16. The amounts of antidiuretic hormone and aldosterone secreted determine the amount of water
reabsorbed in the tubules.
17. Because of unknown mechanisms, the secretion of saliva generally increases when there is a
decrease in the total volume of body water.
18. Positive ions of electrolytes are cations and are attracted to a cathode.
19. Urine volume is regulated mainly by hormones secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary
gland and by the adrenal cortex.
20. If a person takes nothing by mouth for several days, fluid output decreases to zero to
compensate and maintain homeostasis.
21. The body's major fluid compartments are called the extracellular and intracellular fluid
22. Water is added to the body only through the digestive tract.
23. Thirst is associated with any condition that decreases total volume of body water, such as
blood loss or hemorrhage.
24. The most crucial mechanisms for maintaining fluid balance adjust output to intake, as in the
aldosterone mechanism and the renin-angiotensin mechanism.
25. Mechanisms for controlling water movement between the fluid compartments of the body
constitute the slowest-acting fluid balance devices.
26. A person who hyperventilates could lose excessive amounts of water and electrolytes.
27. When compared chemically, interstitial fluid and intercellular fluid are almost identical.
28. When compared chemically, intracellular fluid and plasma are almost identical.
29. Vomiting or diarrhea each may cause fluid and electrolyte output to exceed intake.
30. Chemical similarity predominates between the two extracellular fluids.
31. The only functionally important difference between blood plasma and interstitial fluid is the
presence of more protein anions in plasma.
32. The reactivity or combining power of an electrolyte depends solely on the number of
molecular particles present.
33. The milliequivalent is a measure of the weight of an electrolyte.
34. Blood hydrostatic pressure tends to force fluid out of capillaries and into interstitial fluid.
35. Interstitial fluid contains an appreciable amount of protein anions, whereas blood contains
36. Milliequivalents serve as an accurate measure of the physiological combining power, or
reactivity, of a particular electrolyte solution.
37. Burns, infections, and shock may lead to an increase in plasma proteins, which then causes
38. The most common cause of edema is generalized venous congestion as a result of heart
40. The plasma membrane separates the intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments.
41. An imbalance of electrolytes between the cells and intercellular areas will cause an imbalance
42. A decrease in interstitial fluid sodium concentration will cause an immediate increase in
interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure.
43. A 70-kg (154-lb) adult has a total body sodium pool of approximately 2800 to 3000 mEq.
44. The release of ADH will cause an increase in the reabsorption of sodium and water by the
45. The release of aldosterone can cause an increase in the blood colloid osmotic pressure.
46. The chief means of regulating body sodium levels is through sweat loss.
47. Cell breakdown may lead to a potassium deficiency in the body.
48. Hypochloremia is frequently linked to cases of potassium loss.
49. A person who is dehydrated will need replacement of water and electrolytes.
50. A continuous movement of sodium occurs between a number of internal secretions, such as
saliva, gastric and intestinal secretions, bile, and pancreatic fluid.
51. Extracellular fluid depletion is the last line of defense against dehydration.
52. If the volume of fluid and electrolyte levels inside and outside the cell remains relatively
constant, a condition of homeostasis exists.
53. The total charge in a solution of dissolved electrolytes and a solution of dissolved
non-electrolytes would both be zero.
54. A change in electrolyte balance will have little effect on fluid balance.
55. The dissociated particles of an electrolyte are called ions.
56. Organic compounds are important sources of electrolytes.
57. Functionally, total body water can be subdivided into two fluid compartments—plasma and
58. In parenteral therapy, it is equally important that both intravenous and subcutaneous solutions
be isotonic to plasma.
59. A normal saline solution consists of a 9% solution of NaCl.
60. Acidosis can be rapidly treated by the intravenous administration of lactate.
61. Acidosis can be treated rapidly by the intravenous administration of ammonium chloride.
62. Intracellular fluid is the only fluid that usually contains protein.
63. Whereas sodium is the predominant cation in blood plasma, potassium is the predominant
cation in intracellular fluid.
64. Proteins in body fluids are considered anions.
65. The total concentration of anions in blood plasma is slightly higher than the total
concentration of cations.
66. Milligram percent is the most common unit used to measure electrolyte concentration.
67. Physiologically, the valence of an electrolyte is more important than the number of particles in
68. The amount of water removed by the kidney as urine is greater than all the other sources of
water loss combined.
69. Angiotensin I and angiotensin II increase the secretion of aldosterone.
70. The skin is one of the areas of the body that contributes to obligatory water loss.
71. ANH assists in the regulation of urine volume.
72. Skin "tenting" is a sign of possible dehydration.
73. When a 6% body weight loss occurs because of dehydration, it causes an increase in pulse
rate, body temperature, and respiration rate.
74. A body weight loss of 7% due to dehydration is the most that can be tolerated and still sustain
75. If the other three forces that determine fluid movement were unchanged, an increase in blood
hydrostatic pressure would cause edema.
76. Edema can be defined as the presence of an abnormally large amount of intracellular fluid.
77. Fluid tends to be pushed out of the blood vessels at the venous end and reabsorbed at the
78. Hydrostatic pressure serves as the chief regulator of water transfer between intracellular and
79. Colloid pressure is the chief regulator of water transfer between intracellular and interstitial
80. A decrease in solute concentration in the extracellular fluid will cause water to leave the cell
in an attempt to compensate.
81. Aldosterone and ADH both regulate body fluid by causing absorption of sodium.
82. When chloride is secreted in the urine, it is often linked with sodium.
83. The total body potassium content may be 1000 times greater than the serum potassium level.
84. Potassium loss is rarely a problem because it is so well absorbed by the kidney.
85. In severe and prolonged water loss, the initial fluid shift will be from plasma to interstitial
86. Strenuous physical activity on a hot day can generate as much as 5 L of sweat a day.
87. Extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid can each be reduced to 30% before death from
88. Diuretics, used cautiously, can be used to treat hypovolemia.
89. Too much potassium can be more dangerous than too little potassium.
90. Cells in the roof of the third ventricle of the brain affect the functioning of the thirst center.
91. The body tissue with the least amount of water is bone.
92. Lymph, joint fluid, and the fluid in joint capsules is considered transcellular fluid.
93. Calcium has an atomic weight of 40, and a valance of +2. A 5 mg% solution would have a
milliequivalence of 1.25.
94. Both a decrease in potassium ions and a decrease in blood pressure will stimulate the release
95. Impulses from the subfornical organ stimulates the release of ADH.
96. Starling law of the capillaries explains the balance between fluid lost from the capillaries and
fluid reabsorbed by the capillaries.
97. The nephron has the ability to produce almost sodium-free urine.
98. The most accurate measurement of the body's store of potassium is an arterial blood sample.
99. Normal values for total body water as a percentage of body weight will vary from 45% to
100. Because fat tissue contains the least amount of water of any tissue in the body, obese people
tend to have a lower percentage of body water.
101. Extracellular fluid has two main functions—providing a relatively constant internal
environment for the cells and transporting materials to and from them.
102. The lungs are a source of water loss for the body.
103. Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by the liver.
104. Respiration contributes to the obligatory water loss of the body.
105. Because the GFR is almost constant, the amount of hormone in the blood has the biggest
impact on urine volume.
1. Force that acts to move fluid out of the tissue space and back into the blood
Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure
2. Type of compound that dissociates into ions when dissolved in water
3. Specialized cells in the hypothalamus that detect increased solute concentration in
extracellular fluid caused by water loss
4. Outside the cell
5. Unit measuring the number of ionic charges or electrocovalent bonds in a solution; measure of
reactivity of a particular electrolyte solution
6. Force that acts to move fluid out of the blood and into the tissue space
Blood hydrostatic pressure
7. Substance that enters the body through injection and not through the alimentary canal
8. Within the cell
9. An ion with a negative charge
10. An ion with a positive charge
11. Surrounding the cell
12. A serum potassium level substantially above normal
13. An expansion of fluid volume in the body; a fluid volume excess
14. Condition when fluid output exceeds fluid intake and results in a decrease in total body water
15. An abnormally large amount of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces of the body
16. Serum potassium levels substantially below normal; a potassium deficit
17. A fluid volume deficit that can lead to a state of dehydration
18. A condition of decreased serum sodium concentration below the normal range
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