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Public Speaking Test #2

Similarities Between Public Speaking and Conversation
-Organize your thoughts logically
-Tailor your message to your audience
-Telling a story for maximum impact
-Adapt to listener feedback
Differences Between Public Speaking and Conversation
-Public speaking is more highly structured
-Public speaking requires more formal language
-Public speaking requires a different method of delivery
Why is nervousness normal?
Your body is responding as it would to any stressful situation- by producing extra adrenaline.
Lucas' methods of dealing with nervousness
-Acquire speaking experience.
-Prepare, prepare, prepare.
-Think positively.
-Use the power of visualization.
-Know that most nervousness is not visible.
-Don't expect perfection.
Seven elements of the speech communication process
Importance of cultural diversity
The speaker needs to take into account that the meanings attached to gestures, facial expressions, and other nonverbal signals vary from culture to culture.
How to avoid ethnocentrism?
-Speakers must show respect for the cultures of the people they address.
-They need to adapt their message to the cultural values and expectations of their listeners.
Why is a strong sense of ethical responsibility is vital for public speakers?
Questions of ethics arise whenever we ask whether a course of action is moral or immoral, fair or unfair, just or unjust, and honest or dishonest.
5 Guidelines for ethical speech making
-Make sure your goals are ethically sound
-Be fully prepared for each speech
-Be honest in what you say
-Avoid name-calling and other forms of abusive language
-Put ethical principals into practice
Presenting another person's language or ideas as one's own
Various types of plagiarism
-Global plagiarism
-Patchwork plagiarism
-Incremental plagiarism
-Plagiarism and the internet
3 Guidelines for ethical listening
-Be courteous and attentive
-Avoid prejudging the speaker
-Maintain the free and open expression of ideas
Appreciative listening
Listening for pleasure or enjoyment.
Empathic listening
Listening to provide emotional support for the speaker.
Comprehensive listening
Listening to understand the message of a speaker.
Critical listening
Listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it.
4 Causes of poor listening
-Not concentrating
-Listening too hard
-Jumping to conclusions
-Focusing on delivery and personal appearance
How to become a better listener?
-Take listening seriously
-Be an active listener
-Resist distractions
-Don't be diverted by appearance or delivery
-Suspend judgment
-Focus your listening
-Develop note-taking skills
Why the effective use of language is vital to a public speaker?
Every word has shades of meaning that distinguish it from every other word.
Connotative meaning
The meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase.
Denotative meaning
The literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase.
The importance of using language accurately in public speeches
Each right word and almost right word means something a little different from the other, and each says something special to listeners.
The use of vivid language to create mental images of objects, actions, or ideas.
Concrete words
Call up mental impression of sights, sounds, touch, smell, and taste.
An explicit comparison, introduced with the word "like" or "as," between things that are essentially different yet have something in common.
An implicit comparison, not introduced with the word "like" or "as," between two things that are essentially different yet having something in common.
The pattern of sound in a speech created by the choice and arrangement of words.
The similar arrangement of a pair or series of related words, phrases, or sentences.
Reiteration of the same word or set of words at the beginning or end of successive clauses or sentences.
Repetition of the initial consonant sound of close or adjoining words.
The juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, usually in parallel structure.
Why should speakers use inclusive language?
It is language that does not stereotype, demean, or patronize people on the basis of gender, race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or other factors.
Ways to use inclusive language
-Avoid the generic "he"
-Avoid the use of "man" when referring to both men and women
-Avoid stereotyping jobs and social roles by gender
-Use names that groups use to identify themselves
Why is good delivery important for successful speaking?
It conveys the speaker's ideas clearly, interestingly, and without distracting the audience.
4 Methods of delivering a speech
-Reading from a manuscript
-Reciting from memory
-Speaking impromptu
-Speaking extemporaneously
8 Aspects of voice usage
-Vocal Variety
4 Aspects of bodily action that are most important to a public speaker
-Personal appearance
-Eye contact
5 Guidelines for improving delivery
-Go through your preparation outline aloud to check how what you have written translates into spoken discourse.
-Prepare your speaking outline.
-Practice the speech aloud several times using only the speaking outline.
-Now begin to polish and refine your delivery.
-Give your speech a dress rehearsal under conditions as close as possible to those you will face in class.
Preparing for the question-and-answer session
-Formulate answers to possible questions.
-Practice the delivery of your answers.
Managing the question-and-answer session
-Approach questions with a positive attitude.
-Listen carefully.
-Direct answers to the entire audience.
-Be honest and straightforward.
-Stay on track.
Question of fact
A question about the truth or falsity of an assertion.
Question of value
A question about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action.
Question of policy
A question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken.
The first basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: Is there a serious problem or need that requires a change from current policy?
The second basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: If there is a problem with current policy, does the speaker have a plan to solve the problem?
The third basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: Will the speaker's plan solve the problem? Will it create new and more serious problems?
Ways to organize types of persuasive speeches on questions of policy
-Problem-solution order
-Problem-cause-solution order
-Comparative advantages order
-Monroe's motivated sequence
5 Steps of Monroe's motivated sequence
Factors that affect credibility
-Competence- how an audience regards a speaker's intelligence, expertise, and knowledge of the subject.
-Character- how an audience regard's a speaker's sincerity, trustworthiness, and concern for the well-being of the audience.
Initial credibility
The credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak.
Derived credibility
The credibility of a speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech.
Terminal credibility
The credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech.
How can you enhance your credibility?
You should say and do everything in a way that will make you appear capable and trustworthy.
How does evidence affect persuasive speaking?
It supports materials used to prove or disprove something.
Reasoning from specific instances
Reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion.
Reasoning from principle
Reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion.
Casual reasoning
Reasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects.
Analogical reasoning
Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second.
Red herring
A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion.
Ad hominem
A fallacy that attacks the person rather that dealing with the real issue in dispute.
A fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.
A fallacy that assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.
Slippery slope
A fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.
What are the roles of appealing to emotions in persuasive speeches?
-Use emotional language.
-Develop vivid examples.
-Speak with sincerity and conviction.
The guidelines for an effective speech of introduction
-Be brief.
-Make sure your remarks are completely accurate.
-Adapt your remarks to the occasion.
-Adapt your remarks to the main speaker.
-Adapt your remarks to the audience.
-Try to create a sense of anticipation and drama.
Purpose of a commemorative speech
A speech that pays tribute to a person, a group of people, an institution, or an idea.
Why does the use of creative language lead to a successful commemorative speech?
Your success will depend on your ability to put into language the thoughts and emotions appropriate to the occasion.
Acceptance speech
A speech that gives thanks for a gift, an award, or some other form of public recognition.
Speech of presentation
A speech that presents someone a gift, an award, or some other form of public recognition.
How do audiences engage in a mental dialogue with the speaker as they listen to a persuasive speech?
While listening, they assess the speaker's credibility, delivery, supporting materials, language, reasoning, and emotional appeals.
Target audience
The portion of the whole audience that the speaker most wants to persuade.