-Go through your preparation outline aloud to check how what you have written translates into spoken discourse. -Prepare your speaking outline. -Practice the speech aloud several times using only the speaking outline. -Now begin to polish and refine your delivery. -Give your speech a dress rehearsal under conditions as close as possible to those you will face in class.
Preparing for the question-and-answer session
-Formulate answers to possible questions. -Practice the delivery of your answers.
Managing the question-and-answer session
-Approach questions with a positive attitude. -Listen carefully. -Direct answers to the entire audience. -Be honest and straightforward. -Stay on track.
Question of fact
A question about the truth or falsity of an assertion.
Question of value
A question about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action.
Question of policy
A question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken.
The first basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: Is there a serious problem or need that requires a change from current policy?
The second basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: If there is a problem with current policy, does the speaker have a plan to solve the problem?
The third basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: Will the speaker's plan solve the problem? Will it create new and more serious problems?
Ways to organize types of persuasive speeches on questions of policy
-Problem-solution order -Problem-cause-solution order -Comparative advantages order -Monroe's motivated sequence
-Competence- how an audience regards a speaker's intelligence, expertise, and knowledge of the subject. -Character- how an audience regard's a speaker's sincerity, trustworthiness, and concern for the well-being of the audience.
The credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak.
The credibility of a speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech.
The credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech.
How can you enhance your credibility?
You should say and do everything in a way that will make you appear capable and trustworthy.
How does evidence affect persuasive speaking?
It supports materials used to prove or disprove something.
Reasoning from specific instances
Reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion.
Reasoning from principle
Reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion.
Reasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects.
Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second.
A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion.
A fallacy that attacks the person rather that dealing with the real issue in dispute.
A fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.
A fallacy that assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.
A fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.
What are the roles of appealing to emotions in persuasive speeches?
-Use emotional language. -Develop vivid examples. -Speak with sincerity and conviction.
The guidelines for an effective speech of introduction
-Be brief. -Make sure your remarks are completely accurate. -Adapt your remarks to the occasion. -Adapt your remarks to the main speaker. -Adapt your remarks to the audience. -Try to create a sense of anticipation and drama.
Purpose of a commemorative speech
A speech that pays tribute to a person, a group of people, an institution, or an idea.
Why does the use of creative language lead to a successful commemorative speech?
Your success will depend on your ability to put into language the thoughts and emotions appropriate to the occasion.
A speech that gives thanks for a gift, an award, or some other form of public recognition.
Speech of presentation
A speech that presents someone a gift, an award, or some other form of public recognition.
How do audiences engage in a mental dialogue with the speaker as they listen to a persuasive speech?
While listening, they assess the speaker's credibility, delivery, supporting materials, language, reasoning, and emotional appeals.
The portion of the whole audience that the speaker most wants to persuade.