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• Diencephalon + Telencephalon

4 Major Parts of the Diencephalon:

• Epithalamus
• Thalamus
• Hypothalamus
• Subthalamus

Pineal Body:

• Attached to roof of 3rd ventricle
• Secretes substances into CSF
• Circadian Rhythms

Habenular Nuclei:

• Input from Stria Medullaris
• Projects to Raphe nucleus in brainstem

Stria Medullaris:

• Septal Nuclei to habenula


• Integrates ANS with Endocrine glands
• Includes mammillary bodies


• Internal capsule
• Subthalamic nucleus
• Reticular nucleus

Epithalamus Function:

• Linked with Limbic System
• Autonomic/behavioral responses to emotional changes

Thalamus Function:

• Sensory/motor relay to cortex

Hypothalamus Function:

• Major role in emotion
• Basic functions (hunger, thirst, homeostasis)

Subthalamus Function:

• Motor Function

Corpus Striatum=

• Caudate + Putamen +Globus Pallidus

Lentiform Nucleus=

• Putamen + Globus Pallidus

Basal Ganglia:

• Corpus Striatum
• Subthalamic Nucleus
• Substantia Nigra
• Amygdala

Hypokinetic Disorders:

• Dysfunction of the basal ganglia
• Akinesia
• Bradykinesia

Hyperkinetic Disorders:

• Dyskinesia

Thalamocortical Fibers (corticopetal):

• Ascending Fibers from thalamus

Corticofugal Fibers:

• Descending fibers from cortex (corticospinals & Corticonuclears)

3 Major Parts of the IC (Internal Capsule):

• Anterior Limb
• Genu
• Posterior Limb

2 Parts of the Anterior Limb:

• Descending Corticofugal Fibers
• Anterior Thalamic Radiation (ascending/descending fibers connecting Anterior & medial thalamus with prefrontal cortex)


• Contains Corticonuclear fibers

3 Parts of the Posterior Limb:

• Corticopontine/Corticospinal fibers
• Retrolenticular Fibers
• Sublenticular Fibers

Retrolenticular Fibers:

• Form the Optic Radiation which connects the LGN with the visual cortex

Sublenticular fibers:

• Form the Auditory Radiation which connects the MGN with the auditory cortex

Lateral Striae Branches of MCA Supplies:

• Anterior limb of IC
• Posterior limb of IC

Internal Carotid Artery Supplies:

• Genu

Anterior Choroidal Artery Supplies:

• Retrolenticular Part of Posterior Limb

IC Infarction:

• Contralateral Effects
• Sensory & Motor deficits
• Damage to Posterior Limb:
• UMN signs, (hemiplegia/hemiparesis)
• Visual Field Deficits
• Auditory Deficits

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