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a part of the mind where we can temporarily store thoughts from which we can retrieve them into conscious awareness

reality principle

the principle that the ego seeks to gratify the id's impulses in realistic ways that will bring long-term pleasure

manifest content

the remembered content of dreams

latent content

the unconscious wishes of a dreamer

oral stage, 0-18 months

pleasure centers on the mouth - sucking, chewing, and biting

anal stage, 18-36 months

pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control

phallic stage, 3-6 years

pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous feelings

latency stage (6 to puberty)

dormant sexual feelings

genital stage (puberty on)

maturation of sexual interests

inferiority complex

an idea proposed by Alfred Adler that the individual is overcoming feelings of inferiority

Karen Horney

countered Freud's idea that women suffer "penis envy" and have weak superegos

Carl Jung

proposed the idea of a collective unconscious

psychodynamic theory

a descendant of psychoanalytic theory; held by Neo-Freudian theory

false consensus effect

the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

factor analysis

the statistical procedure to identify clusters of test items that tap basic components of intelligence (or, in this case, personality traits)

Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Openness, and Extraversion



Organized vs. Disorganized
Careful vs. Careless
Disciplined vs. Impulsive


Soft-hearted vs. Ruthless
Trusting vs. Suspicious
Helpful vs. Uncooperative


Calm vs. anxious
Secure vs. Insecure
Self-satisfied vs. self-pitying


Imaginative vs. Practical
Preference for variety vs. Preference for routine
Independent vs. Conforming


Sociable vs. Retiring
Fun-loving vs. Sober
Affectionate vs. Reserved

person-situation controversy

is behavior influenced more by environment or does a consistent personality exist

attributional style

the way that people rationalize consequences


in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions


one's feelings of high or low self worth


the ability to control impulses and delay gratification


a personality trait characterized by instability, anxiety, aggression, etc


state of being
controlled by or done according to conscience; scrupulous
meticulous; careful; painstaking; particular


ability to tolerate change


the directing of one's interest outwards, esp towards social contacts


the state of being willing or ready to agree or consent

Alfred Adler

proposed inferiority complex

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