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35 terms

Prentice Hall Biology, Chapter 20

STUDY
PLAY
Anther
Part of a flower that produces a male gametophyte
3 Ways of Seed dispersal
Animals, Wind, Water
Monocot Seed Adaptations
Covering sheath
Dicot Seed Adaptations
Hooked shoot tip
Functions of the root system
Anchors plant in the soil, absorbs minerals and water, absorbs food
Fibrous Roots
Monocot; mat of thin roots spread out below the surface
Taproot
Dicot; large vertical root with smaller branches
Shoot system
Stems, leaves and flowers
Transports water, provides support, makes food, stores food
Buds
Undeveloped shoots
Blade
Main part of a leaf
Petiole
Connect leaf to a stem
3 Main Tissue Systems
Dermal Tissue, Vascular Tissue, Ground Tissue
Dermal Tissue
Outer covering
Vascular Tissue
Xylem and Phloem; transports water, nutrients, and minerals between the roots and shoots
Xylem
Transports water and minerals upward from the roots
Phloem
Transports food made in the leaves downwards
Ground Tissue
Fills spaces between dermal and vascular tissue; functions in photosynthesis, support, storage
Cortex
Ground tissue in the roots
3 Basic Cell Types
Parenchyma cells, Collenchyma cells, Sclerenchyma cells
Parenchyma Cells
Have thin cell walls and large vacuoles
Function in food storage, photosynthesis, and cellular respiration
Collenchyma Cells
Unevenly thickened cell walls that support growing plant tissue
Sclerenchyma Cells
Specialized for support, form a "skeleton" after dying that supports a network of tubes to transport materials
Meristems
Produce new dermal, vascular, and ground tissue
Apical Meristems
Found in the tips of roots and shoots; produce cells that enable a plant to grow in length
Primary Growth
Growing in length
Root cap
protects the cells of the apical meristem
Axillary Buds
Formed by pockets of meristematic cells left behind, give rise to new branches
Secondary Growth
Growth in plant width
Vascular Cambium
Meristematic tissue located between the xylem and phloem
Creates secondary xylem on one side and creates secondary phloem on the other side
Wood
Secondary xylem, with each added layer of xylem the stem or root thickens
Cork Cambium
Produces a tough outer layer of cork; prevents water loss and protects the plant's internal tissues
Bark
Everything outside the vascular cambium; phloem, cork cambium, and cork
Tree rings
Form from layer of xylem produced by vascular cambium, during cool conditions wide xylem forms, during warm conditions, narrow xylem forms
Cotyledon
Functions in the storage and transfer of nutrients to the embryo
2 in dicots: 1 in monocots
Vegetative Reproduction
Produces offspring genetically identical to the parent; asexual reproduction