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Part of a flower that produces a male gametophyte

3 Ways of Seed dispersal

Animals, Wind, Water

Monocot Seed Adaptations

Covering sheath

Dicot Seed Adaptations

Hooked shoot tip

Functions of the root system

Anchors plant in the soil, absorbs minerals and water, absorbs food

Fibrous Roots

Monocot; mat of thin roots spread out below the surface


Dicot; large vertical root with smaller branches

Shoot system

Stems, leaves and flowers
Transports water, provides support, makes food, stores food


Undeveloped shoots


Main part of a leaf


Connect leaf to a stem

3 Main Tissue Systems

Dermal Tissue, Vascular Tissue, Ground Tissue

Dermal Tissue

Outer covering

Vascular Tissue

Xylem and Phloem; transports water, nutrients, and minerals between the roots and shoots


Transports water and minerals upward from the roots


Transports food made in the leaves downwards

Ground Tissue

Fills spaces between dermal and vascular tissue; functions in photosynthesis, support, storage


Ground tissue in the roots

3 Basic Cell Types

Parenchyma cells, Collenchyma cells, Sclerenchyma cells

Parenchyma Cells

Have thin cell walls and large vacuoles
Function in food storage, photosynthesis, and cellular respiration

Collenchyma Cells

Unevenly thickened cell walls that support growing plant tissue

Sclerenchyma Cells

Specialized for support, form a "skeleton" after dying that supports a network of tubes to transport materials


Produce new dermal, vascular, and ground tissue

Apical Meristems

Found in the tips of roots and shoots; produce cells that enable a plant to grow in length

Primary Growth

Growing in length

Root cap

protects the cells of the apical meristem

Axillary Buds

Formed by pockets of meristematic cells left behind, give rise to new branches

Secondary Growth

Growth in plant width

Vascular Cambium

Meristematic tissue located between the xylem and phloem
Creates secondary xylem on one side and creates secondary phloem on the other side


Secondary xylem, with each added layer of xylem the stem or root thickens

Cork Cambium

Produces a tough outer layer of cork; prevents water loss and protects the plant's internal tissues


Everything outside the vascular cambium; phloem, cork cambium, and cork

Tree rings

Form from layer of xylem produced by vascular cambium, during cool conditions wide xylem forms, during warm conditions, narrow xylem forms


Functions in the storage and transfer of nutrients to the embryo
2 in dicots: 1 in monocots

Vegetative Reproduction

Produces offspring genetically identical to the parent; asexual reproduction

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