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Characteristics of Life Through Biological Molecules (Seewald)
Terms in this set (49)
Characteristics of Life
Share a genetic code, Grow and develop, Living things respond to environment, Made of cells, Maintain a stable internal environment, Reproduce, Use materials and energy, and as a they Evolve.
The one part of the experiment without the independent/ manipulated variable.
The manipulated variable.
The One that depends on the manipulated variable.
Things that stay the same throughout the entire experiment.
Main Elements in Living Things
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur, Phosphorus.
Four Main Biological Molecules
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids.
What is a Subunit?
A building block.
Any substance that gives a visible sign, usually by a color change, of the presence or absence of a substance.
Lugols Idonine Change
Used to test for starch, Turns from brown to black.
Benedicts Reagent Change
Used to test for sugar, Goes from blue to orange when heat applied.
Biuret Reagent Change
Used to test for proteins, Goes from light purple to dark purple.
Butter Paper Change
Goes from non-translucence to being translucent.
Matter undergoes a chemical change to become a different substance.
Reactants Placed Where?
On the Left side of the arrow in the equation.
Products Placed Where?
On the Right side of the arrow in the equation.
A chemical reaction in which you can feel the heat because the reaction releases heat. Ex: Candle burning, campfire.
A chemical reaction in which it takes in heat and absorbs it during the reaction. Ex: Instant cold packs
All Enzymes are proteins, which help speed up or catalyze a reaction lowering the activation energy needed to start the reaction. While reactants and products change in a chemical reaction an enzyme does not and can be used again. Each one is specific to a substrate.
Reactant in the chemical reaction being changed, it fits into the enzyme active site.
Enzymes end with ase, such as lactase and their substrate ends with ose, such as lactose.
Factor #1 That Affect Enzymes
Substrate Concentration- Too much or too little substrate and the reaction will level off or plateaus.
Factor #2 That Affect Enzymes
Enzyme Concentration- Too much or too little enzyme and the reaction will level off or plateaus.
Factor #3 That Affect Enzymes
Too hot and the Enzyme denatures, which is when the active site changes shape and the substrate can no longer fit.
Factor #4 That Affect Enzymes
pH- Some enzymes work best in low pH (acid), while others work best in a high pH (base).
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen.
Monosaccaride, which equals one sugar such as glucose or fructose. Another subunit is disaccaride which is a two sugar molecule.
Two Monosaccarides linked.
A hexagon shape, each corner is a carbon except for one which is oxygen.
Milk sugar disaccaride with two monosaccarides linked.
Carbohydrates Role in the Cell
Provide energy for the cells. All building and breaking down of materials.
Carbs found in what foods?
Bread, grains, pasta, potatoes.
Fiber, indigestible for us makes us plants cell walls. Fiber sweeps out digestive system and feeds trillion of good bacteria which live in the intestine.
Long chains of many sugar monomers ( single subunits) which is what complex carbs are made of.
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen.
Subunits of Proteins
Monomers- single subunits called amino acids. There are twenty different amino acids. Cells make proteins by linking amino acids to form polypeptides. Many Polypeptides can be made by just twenty amino acids.
What is a complete protein?
Role in the Cell Proteins
Proteins do work. The shape of a protein is important for its work so if it becomes denatured ( folded) it does not work. Heat and changes in pH can denature a protein.
Proteins found in what foods?
Meat, Beans, Eggs, Nuts, Dairy.
Elements in Lipids
Oxygen, Hydrogen, Carbon.
Subunit of Lipids
Role in Cell of Lipids
Long term energy store, insulation, protects organs, part of a cells membrane: the barrier between the cells internal and external environment.
Lipids found in what foods?
Saturated: Eggs, dairy, meat, coconut, avocado (has both). Unsaturated: Olive oil, Veg oil.
Solid at room temp.
Liquid at room temp.
Elements in Nucleic Acids
Oxygen, hydrogen, Carbon, Phosphorus, Nitrogen.
Subunit of Nucleic Acids
Four different subunits: Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine. Many Nucleotides make up DNA (two stranded) and RNA ( one stranded).
Nucleic Acids Role in the Cell
Stores your genetic/ hereditary information.
Nuclei Acids found in what foods?
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