the treatment of psychological disorders through talking and other psychological methods.
medical doctors who have completed special training in treatment of psychological disorders
among therapists, those whose education includes completion of master's or usually a doctoral degree in clinical or counseling psychology, often followed by additional specialty training.
a method of psychotherapy that seeks to help clients gain insight by recognizing and understanding unconscious thoughts and emotions.
a therapy that allows the client to decide what to talk about, without direction, judgement, or interpretation from the therapist.
unconditional positive regard
a therapist s attitude that conveys a caring for and acceptance of the clients as a valued person.
the therapist's attempt to appreciate and understand how the world looks from the client's point of view.
an active listening method in which a therapist conveys empathy by paraphrasing clients statements and noting accompanying feelings.
an active treatment designed to help clients get in touch with genuine feeling and disown foreign ones.
learning based treatment methods that help clients change the way they think, as well as the way they behave.
a behavioral treatment for anxiety in which clients visualize a graduated series of anxiety-provoking stimuli while remaining relaxed.
assertiveness and social skills training
methods for teaching clients how to interact with others more comfortably and effectively.
a system for improving the behavior of institutionalized clients in which desirable behaviors are rewarded with tokens that can be exchanged for desired items or activities.
the gradual disappearance of a conditioned response or operant behavior through non reinforcement.
a procedure for reducing anxiety that involves keeping a person in a feared, but harmless, situation.
a method that uses classical conditioning to create a negative response to a particular stimulus.
a therapy method that weakens undesirable behavior by following it with an unpleasant stimulus.
rational-emotive behavior therapy
a treatment designed to identify and change self-defeating thoughts that lead to anxiety and other symptoms of disorder.
a treatment in which the therapist helps clients to notice and change negative thoughts associated with anxiety and depression.
empirically supported therapies
treatments whose effects have been validated by controlled experimental research.
brief electrical shock administered to the brain, usually to reduce depression that does not respond to drug treatment.
surgical procedures that destroy tissue in small regions of the brain in an effort to treat psychological disorders.