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Key terms and people from chapter 29 of The American Pageant

Progressive Era

Period of American history bent on political and social reform, specifically pertaining to living conditions in cities, size of business, and the corruption of government

Henry Demarest Lloyd

He wrote the book "Wealth Against Commonwealth" in 1894. It was part of the progressive movement and the book's purpose was to show the wrong in the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company.

Thorstein Veblen

Progressive writer who assailed the new rich in his work "The Theory of the Leisure Class" in 1899, attacking the "predatory wealthy" and "conspicious consumption."

Jacob A. Riis

reporter for new york sun, wrote about "how the other half lives", shocked middle class citizens with details about the slums. His work influenced Theodore Roosevelt.

Theodore Dreiser

wrote The Financier and The Titan, helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums and influenced reforms.

social gospel

A movement that urged Christians to social service.

Jane Addams and Lillian Wald

entered the fight to improve the living and working conditions in cities such as New York.


This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.

Lincoln Steffens

Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title Shame of the Cities.

Ida M. Tarbell

journalist who published a devastating but factual expose of the Standard Oil Company.

Thomas W. Lawson

An erratic spectator who had made 50 mil on the stock market and who laid bare the practices of his accomplices in "frenzied finance." this however ruined him because he made many enemies and died a poor man.

David G. Phillips

published "The Treason of the Senate" in Cosmopolitan, said that 75 out of the 90 senators represented railroads and trusts rather than the people.

Ray Stannard Baker

wrote Following the Color Line about the illiteracy of blacks.

John Spargo

wrote The Bitter Cry of the Children exposing the abuses of child labor.

Dr. Harvey W. Wiley

was the chief chemist of the Department of Agriculture, and with his famous "Poison Squad" performed experiments on himself. He reinforced the attacks by Collier's magazine on the vendors of potent patent medicines, who sold large quantities of adulterated or habit-forming drugs.


Allowed citizens to introduce a bill into the legislative and required members to take a vote on it.


The practice of letting voters accept or reject measures proposed by the legislature.


Enables voters to to remove corrupt elected officials.

Australian ballot

A government printed ballot of uniform size and shape to be cast in secret that was adopted by many states around 1890 in order to reduce the voting fraud associated with party printed ballots cast in public.

"Millionaires Club"

derogatory nickname given to the Senate do to the many rich men among them.

The Seventeenth Amendment

Approved in 1913, it required the direct election of Senators

Robert M. La Follette

Leader of the progressive branch of the Republican Party; he was active in local Wisconsin issues and challenged party bosses. As governor, he began the reform program called the Wisconsin Idea to make state government more professional.

Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire

March 25th, 1911- An industrial fire that caused the death of 146 garment workers. Most workers could not escape because of the tendency of the managers to lock the doors. This incident led to the legislation of an improvement in factory working conditions.

Florence Kelley

fought for protection of women workers & against child labor.

Muller V. Oregon (1908)

Supreme Court Case which protected women workers from the harmcul effects of factory labor

Lochner v. New York (1905)

Overturned a New York law setting a ten-hour work day for bakers.

Woman's Christian Temperance Union

A women's prohibition organization led by Frances E. Willard.

The Square Deal

A Domestic program made by Teddy Rossevelt. It was formed upon three basic ideas: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection

Bureau of Corporations

Part of the Department of Labor created in 1903. The Bureau was given authority to investigate corporations and issue reports of their activities.

Department of Labor

Originally started in 1903 as the Department of Commerce and Labor, it formed when combined with the Bureau of Corporations in 1913.

Elkins Act of 1903

Fined Railroads who gave rebates and shippers who accepted them.

Hepburn Act of 1906

Proposal for railroad regulation enacted in 1906 that extended the authority of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) and gave it the power to set maximum freight rates.

Upton Sinclair

A muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago.

Meat Inspection Act of 1906

A progressive law aimed at curbing unsanitary practices of the meat packing industry exposed by Upton Sinclair in "The Jungle."

Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906

Prohibited mislabeling and adulteration of pharmaceuticals and food.

Forest Reserve Act of 1891

Authorized the President to set aside public forests as national parks and other reserves.

Division of Forestry

Gifford Pinchot, under TR, was the head of this federal bureau dealing with conservation.

Newlands Act of 1902

authorized Washington to collect money from the sale of public lands in the Western states, using funds for the development of irrigation projects

Hetch Hetchy Valley

The federal government allowed the city of San Francisco to build a dam here in 1913. This was a blow to preservationists, who wished to protect the Yosemite National Park, where the dam was located.


the preservation and careful management of the environment and of natural resources.

Panic of 1907

Roosevelt suffered sharp setback in 1907. Short panic descended on Wall Street. Financial flurry featured frightened runs on banks suicides against speculators. Financial world blamed Roosevelt. "Theodore the Meddler."

William Howard Taft

He was the 27th President of the United States. He was the Successor of Teddy Roosevelt he had different views than Teddy and brought up 90 suits against trust.

dollar diplomacy

President Taft's policy of linking American business interests to diplomatic interests abroad.

Payne-Aldrich Bill

A bill that added hundreds of higher tariff revisions. Signed by Taft which went against his campaign promises and upset the progressives.

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