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Indiana Core Elementary Generalist Science
Made mainly from the official practice test
Terms in this set (137)
The results of legitimate scientific investigations are typically published as ______ ___ in respected scientific journals
peer review articles
Published scientific results should include ___ and ___ generated by the investigation so that work can be independently replicated and verified by other scientists in the field.
A ___ is an important part of an experiment because it provides a baseline to which the results of the experiment can be compared.
In the design process, after the need or problem has been identified and background research has been conducted, the next step is to identify ___ and ___ that must be accommodated by the design.
In the ___ ___, 1) identify the problem 2) explore research 3) design ideas 4) create the idea 5) try it 6) make it better and go back to step 3
Natural and human-constructed systems that are self-regulating work to limit changes in the system and bring it back towards a state of equilibrium. This is called ___ ___
Negative feedback is extremely important in maintaining ___ in natural systems (e.g.. endocrine system, climate system) and technological systems (e. g.. thermostat controlling a home healing system, water-level float valve that shuts off water input into a toilet tank).
Earth and space science example of ___ ___: Sunlight heats the land surface, which warms the overlying air, causing the air to rise into the atmosphere and form clouds that reduce further solar heating
Although a scientist's cultural background always exerts some influence on his or her work, some topics of study are much more likely to be influenced by a researcher's background than others. For example, humans are social primates with strong conscious and unconscious feelings about ___ ___
Unlike reading about science online or collecting data for a big research project, carrying out ___ experiments and activities directly engages students in scientific inquiry by having them virtually conduct an experiment or activity.
___ is a cooling process in which the loss of the fastest-moving water molecules in the form of gaseous water vapor reduces the temperature of the remaining water molecules.
When an uncovered container of water is being heated on a burner, the added heat increases the ___ energy of the water molecules (and therefore the __ of the water) enough so that more of them can break free as water vapor from the surface of the water
At water's boiling point (100°C at normal atmospheric pressure), the loss of fast-moving ___ ___ molecules balance the energy input from the burner, preventing the water in the uncovered pot from warming above 100°C.
Any object orbiting Earth is pulled toward Earths center by gravity. Since Earth is curved and the piece object has an orbital velocity that is perpendicular to the direction of gravitational pull, the rate at which the debris falls toward Earth is just slightly ___ than the rate at which Earth's curved surface falls away from the object. Therefore, the object A) Hits the Earth almost immediately after entering the hemisphere or B) Misses the Earth until the speed diminishes from the drag of air molecules
Does sound travel faster in warm air or cool air?
___ air has greater kinetic energy (faster motion) of the molecules so moving molecules bump into each other more often, transmitting the pulse of a sound faster.
Areas of __ pressure in the atmosphere are where conditions are favorable for the development of storms when other conditions are also favorable.
Air flows from areas of ___ pressure towards areas of ___ pressure.
In the Northern Hemisphere, the ___ ___ causes winds to veer toward the right, producing the counterclockwise circulation of winds associated with developing low-pressure systems
A phenomenon that causes fluids, like water and air, to curve as they travel across or above Earth's surface
East is constantly spinning on its access from ___ to ___
High pressure air surrounding the eye of a storm is rushing constantly towards the low pressure void in the middle, but because of the ___ ___, the air moving straight towards the center is deflected off course.
In the north, storms travel ___ as air is pulled right.
In the south, storms travel ___ as air is pulled left.
Earth moves fastest around the axis at the ___
The slow cooling of a molten magma body deep underground allows time for the growth of ___.
Rocks that are glassy in appearance or have hard-to-see crystals typically cooled___—often as an extruded igneous rock such as lava that cooled quickly in contact with water or the air.
The most important factor controlling the change of ___ on Earth is the change in the direction that Earth's axis of rotation points toward during its orbit.
The tilt of Earth's axis of rotation only changes slowly over thousands of years, but the orientation of Earth's tilted axis relative to the sun does change, with the northern pole of the axis pointing toward the sun during the ___ and away from the sun during the ___.
The ___ of the Earth is why we have seasons.
Insects spiders, and crustaceans are all members of the phylum ___
multicellular, heterotrophic organisms feeding on dead matter (decomposers), cell walls composed of chitin i.e. mushroom
single-celled, but not an animal, plant, or fungus. (i.e. Slime, molds)
multicellular, autotrophic organisms (producers) like grass
type of plant that does not have an internal transport system like mosses
type of tree that shed all of their leaves at a specific time/event (such as winter) like oak trees
type of tree that do NOT shed all of their leaves at a specific time/event (such as winter) like pine trees
eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic organisms (consumers) like horses
Animals that typically have: no backbone (invertebrates), a hard outer covering (exoskeleton), three body parts (head, thorax, abdomen), antennae, 3 pairs of legs like bees
Cold-blooded animals that have a backbone (vertebrate) and smooth, moist skin. Lay their eggs in water, but adults live on land like frogs
Cold-blooded animals that have a backbone (vertebrate) and dry, scaly skin. Live on land like snakes
Warm-blooded animals that typically: have three bones in their ears, have hair, and produce milk for their young like cows
___ are invertebrate animals with segmented bodies jointed appendages, and an exoskeleton that is replaced periodically through molting.
Species that play a central role in maintaining the structure of their ecosystem are called ___ ___.
Sea otters' consumption of sea urchins reduces the impact of sea urchins on the biologically important kelp forest ecosystem. In this case, sea otters are an example of a ___ ___.
The African elephant consumes tree leaves and branches, killing trees and discouraging the spread of forests in the savanna. These elephants are an example of a ___ ___.
Increased nitrogen and phosphorus entering a pond or lake ecosystem begins the process of ___.
During ___, the population of phytoplankton in the water explodes, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching submerged aquatic plants. Ultimately, this causes an increase in the amount of dead plant matter at the bottom of the lake or pond, which becomes food for the microorganisms and bacteria that break it dawn. As these organisms undergo respiration they consume dissolved oxygen in the water eventually depleting it to levels insufficient for sustaining same species of fish and shellfish.
The single electron in the outermost shell of metals, such as copper, gold, and silver, is not anchored to its respective nuclei, but can move freely between the atoms that make up a piece of metal. This gives metals the ability to ___ ___.
A bottle opener is a second-class ___ that allows a person to increase the output force needed to remove the bottle cap by applying a smaller input force over a greater distance.
In the case of the bottle opener, the___, or pivot point, is at the end of the opener that is placed on top of the bottle cap, the ___ is at the part of the opener that attaches to the underside of the bottle cap, and the ___ force is provided by a person lifting the handle.
fulcrum, resistance, input
A basic electrical motor converts electrical energy into ___ energy through the interaction between the magnetic field of a magnet and the magnetic field generated by a current-carrying wire.
A magnetic compass placed next to a current-carrying wire is essentially a simplified version of an ___ ___.
In an electrical motor, the electric current alternates direction, producing an ___ force that rotates a loop of wire.
Having students use a dichotomous key to identify tree species is an excellent activity that helps students develop ___ ___ skills.
A ___ key requires the user to choose one of two or more options in the key and then select the next identifying characteristic according to the original decision until more and more detail is added to this sequential system of observing.
Identifying these underlying assumptions is an important ___ ___ skill that requires careful reading to find statements that are not supported by evidence.
Taking a large group of students from two grade levels on a field trip to a zoo and a museum requires a sufficient number of ___ parent/guardian chaperones or teaching aides to ensure the safety of students in an uncontrolled public setting.
A teacher considering purchasing an animal for the elementary classroom must first take into account which type of animal is ___ and for the students. A rabbit is a good choice for most classrooms in terms of student health and safety.
Once the choice of animal has been made, the most important question to answer next is what specific ___ or guidelines will be established for defining how and when students will interact with the animal.
___ propagates as a sequence of compressions and rarefactions/___
Sound, decompressions of the molecules in the medium through the medium
A good analogy to describe the propagation of sound is the falling of a line of standing dominoes. In the same way that the energy from the initial push of the domino is transferred to the other dominoes the initial compression and decompression of molecules caused by a person talking is transferred between ___ ___ to a listener.
Most of the energy in ___ striking Earth's atmosphere either rejects back into space or passes through the atmosphere without being absorbed.
Although a small portion of the sun's energy not reflected back into space is absorbed by the atmosphere, it is not sufficient to significantly ___ the atmosphere near Earth's surface.
Most of the atmospheric warming near the Earth occurs when the ___ in sunlight is absorbed by Earth's surface and is then reradiated from the surface at infrared wavelengths as heat energy.
The heating of Earth's lower atmosphere is a difficult concept that is not intuitive to second graders, but it is fundamental to understanding ___, greenhouse gases, and Earth's energy budget.
___ assessment includes a variety of formal and informal assessments used during or prior to the teaching and learning process.
The goals of ___ assessment are to guide the teacher in developing and planning instruction to help students succeed and to help them identify the areas in which they need additional work.
Giving students feedback to support their understanding as they work to complete a task is a good example of ___ assessment because it is classroom based and allows teachers to monitor and adjust their instructional practice in order to meet the individual needs of their students.
RtI stands for...
Response to Instruction
___ ___ ___ involves evaluating the response of one or more students to the delivery of instruction with the twin goals of identifying learning and teaching approaches that are not working for the particular student(s) and identifying alternate modalities or approaches that will improve student learning outcomes.
Response to Instruction
___ involves identifying and diagnosing the cause of the breakdown in student learning and then developing an alternate approach or modality through which the learning outcomes will be improved.
The body converts certain ___ into coenzymes, which assist enzymes with cell metabolism and energy production.
The B complex vitamins help enzymes as ___ in metabolism.
In their role as ___, vitamins carry chemical groups or electrons between molecules.
Some ___ act as regulators of cell and tissue growth and differentiation.
Passing a beach ball to a partner over a five- to six-foot-high net involves executing a fundamental object ___/___ skill.
___ ___ skills include throwing catching, kicking, trapping, striking, volleying, ball rolling, and dribbling
. Creating an individualized physical activity plan according to the four components of the ___ principle helps students achieve health-related fitness benefits.
F in FITT
___ is how often a person performs the chosen physical activity
I in FITT
___ is how hard a person exercises during a physical activity period. Often measured by heartrate.
First T in FITT
___ refers to the duration of the physical activity
Last T in FITT
___ refers to the kind of physical activity chosen to improve a component of health-related fitness.
___ factors such as strong positive bonds with family and school have been shown to help children and adolescents avoid multiple behaviors that place them at risk for adverse health and educational outcomes.
According to research, children's and adolescent' beliefs about ___ and their ___ are shaped by the extent to which they perceive that parents/guardians and other significant adults care about them and want to be involved in their lives.
___ ___ is the belief by students that adults and peers in the school care about their learning as well as about them as individuals.
Students with strong ___ to family and school report higher levels of emotional well-being and are less likely to use alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, have early sexual experiences, engage in violent or deviant behavior, or feel distressed or suicidal.
According to the CDC, empirical research shouts that 90% of individuals who eventually die from ___ begin before age 18.
Because many students initiate ___ use before high school and impressions about tobacco use are formed even earlier, prevention education should be provided in elementary school and continued through the middle and high school.
Several large studies have shown that school-based tobacco ___ programs that identify social influences that promote tobacco use among youth and foster skills needed to resist such influences can significantly reduce or delay adolescent smoking.
To prepare students for using a ___ ___ ___ effectively and successfully, it is important to teach students how to use "I" messages and active listening techniques and have them practice the techniques with classmates.
conflict resolution protocol
The "I" message formula: "When ___ [blank], I ___ [blank], because [blank], so what I would ___ is [blank].
you, feel, like
By using ___ ___, a student can check his or her understanding of another student's feelings.
By using conflict resolution protocols like "I" messages, students develop the ___ skills needed to assert their feelings while maintaining respect for the feelings of others.
Studies show that parent/guardian role modeling and support of ___ ___ is consistently and significantly associated with healthy levels of this in children.
When parents/guardians assign value to physical activities, ___ involvement in those valued activities, and express ___ and provide opportunities for children's involvement in physical activities, children are much more likely to participate in and value physical activities.
Using critical-thinking and decision-making skills to guide and manage health behaviors fosters a sense of control over and promotes responsibility for ___ ___.
A number of model pedestrian safety education programs stress the importance of providing elementary school students with perceptual skills training and in-school role-playing and real-world simulation activities prior to taking students on ___ ___.
In Tier 2 of a three-tiered Rtl framework, students who do not succeed with instruction in Tier 1 receive ___ instruction, which is often short term, individualized, and implemented in small-group settings.
___ ___ continues throughout Tier 2 to gauge students' response to the intervention.
The use of ___ ___ methods and ___ in addition to summative assessment allows for a systematic and continuous assessment of student progress which provides ongoing feedback about learning to both the students and the teacher. It also allows teachers to diagnose skill, ability, and knowledge gaps, as well as evaluate effectiveness of instruction.
formative assessment, data
Kindergarten physical education students learn fundamental ___ (walking, running, hopping, skipping, jumping, sliding, galloping), ___ (bending, twisting, turning, rocking, swaying, rolling, balancing, stretching, pushing and pulling) and ___ (rolling, throwing, catching/collecting, bouncing, kicking, dribbling, volleying, and striking) skills through a wide variety of activities.
locomotor, nonlocomotory, manipulative
___ [age] PE activities encourage socialization, feelings of personal success, expressing ideas through movement, and the integration and reinforcement of a variety of educational concepts.
As ___ graders perform a variety of fundamental locomotor and nonlocomotor skills, students learn to move within different spaces, at varying speeds, with different amounts of force, and using different levels, directions, and pathways.
___ grade students learn how to purposely manipulate objects.
First grade PE skills are developed through application in games, ___ activities, and developmental exercises.
Students in ___ grade physical education participate in a wide variety of activities and games where they learn to move with one another in space and to work cooperatively with a partner.
Students learn to combine fundamental locomotor and nonlocomotor skills and to apply basic strategy in active games in ___ grade.
In ___ grade, students learn to manipulate objects with a partner (throwing, catching, striking, kicking, bouncing, and rolling).
___ grade students learn how to use fitness and sport equipment safely and to identify opportunities for involvement in family and community recreation and sport.
Students learn fitness concepts (cardio-respiratory endurance, body composition, flexibility, muscular strength and endurance) and participate in fitness activities with more intensity in ___ grade.
Students in ___ grade physical education participate in experiences designed to refine fundamental movement patterns and combinations of movements.
The emphasis for ___ grade students in PE is how students react and respond to others as they apply strategies in situations such as games, gymnastics, and rhythmic activities.
Students learn to analyze their performance in order to learn or improve a movement skill and continue to learn fitness concepts in ___ grade.
Students in ___ grade4 physical education participate in experiences designed to refine movement patterns and combinations while placing emphasis on manipulating objects.
Students develop more mature techniques for throwing, catching, striking, kicking, trapping and dribbling and applying combinations of specialized skills through activities like gymnastics, dance, adventure, and individual, dual, and team sport games and activities in ___ grade.
The emphasis in ___ grade is on manipulating objects with accuracy and speed.
Students continue to learn fitness concepts, participate in fitness activities at school and home, assess their fitness level by comparing their scores to a health-related standard, and set goals for improvement in ___ grade.
Students in ___ grade study the composition of objects, the nature of solids and liquids, the properties of soil, and the relationship of living things to one another and to their environment.
Students in ___ grade learn about naturally occurring and human made materials and design and construct a habitat for an animal.
Students in ___ grade study changes in physical properties of materials and the effect of force on the motion of an object.
___ grade students investigate patterns in the weather, in the position of the sun and the moon in the sky during the day and in the shape of the moon over the course of about a month.
___ grade students study the life cycles of plants and animals and compare the different body plans.
___ grade students investigate simple tools and how they can be used to meet human needs.
Students in ___ grade study sound and light and recognize them as forms of energy.
Students in ___ grade investigate rocks and minerals and develop an understanding of how natural materials can meet the needs of plants and animals.
Students in ___ grade study plant growth and development. They investigate the uses and types of simple machines and study ways to solve real world problems.
Students in ___ grade study heat and electricity as forms of energy and they construct simple electric circuits.
Students in ___ grade study how the shape of the land changes over time and how natural resources are in limited supply.
Students in ___ grade study how the physical characteristics of organisms affect survival and reproduction. Students investigate transportation systems, design a moving system and measure its motion.
Students in ___ grade study the relationship between weight and volume and the differences between weight and mass.
Students in ___ garde study the solar system and patterns in the sun-moon-earth system. They study the roles and relationships of producers and consumers in an ecosystem.
Students in __ grade investigate the human musculoskeletal system and how to design and build prototypes.
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