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Reasons for Westward Expansion

- land ownership
- technological advances
- adventure
- possibility of wealth
- new beginning for former slaves

discovery of gold and silver

created the possibility for wealth and motivated some to move west

Battle of Little Bighorn

a major Native American victory in a series of defeats

Sitting Bull

Native American leader at the Battle of Little Bighorn


Apache chief


Native Americans were forcibly relocated here from their traditional lands

Chief Joseph

Nez Perce leader who vowed to "fight no more forever"

Battle of Wounded Knee

last major battle between the Native Americans and the army; a massacre

Westward expansion led to reduced...

...buffalo populations


making something resemble a larger group

assimilation was one way to change this

Native American lifestyle

results of broken treaties

reduction of Native American homelands

reasons for increased immigration

- better opportunities
- escape oppressive government
- adventure
- religious freedom

reasons why cities developed

- specialized industry
- immigration
- movement from rural areas for jobs

Jane Addams

founder of Hull House

Hull House

a settlement house

political machines

gained power by attending to the needs of immigrants

immigrant groups who were discriminated against

Irish and Chinese

challenges faced by cities

- tenements
- ghettos
- political corruption

year Native Americans were first considered to be citizens


Booker T. Washington

believed equality could be achieved through vocational education and accepted social separation

W.E.B. DuBois

believed in full political, civil and social rights for African Americans

Thomas Edison

electic lighting and mechanical uses of electricity

Alexander Graham Bell


reasons for the rise of big business

- Captains of Industry
- low-cost production
- advertising
- national markets

John D. Rockefeller

captain of the oil industry

Andrew Carnegie

captain of the steel industry

Cornelius Vanderbilt

captain of the shipping and railroad industries

invention that helped lower production costs

assembly line

invention that helped create national markets


reasons for the growth of industr

- financial resource
- available work force
- inventions
- access to raw materials and energy


making things using machines

effects of mechanization

reduced farm labor needs and increased production

negative effects of industrialization

- child labor
- low wages
- long hours
- unsafe conditions

American Federation of Labor

a labor union

Homestead Strike

a strike at a Carnegie steel plant

Progressive Movement workplace reforms

- improved safety conditions
- reduced work hours
- restricted child labor

Suffrage Movement

- increased education opportunities for women
- worked to gain voting rights for women

19th amendment

gave women the right to vote

suffrage workers

Elizabeth Cady Stantion and Susan B. Anthony

Temperance Movement

groups opposed to the making and consuming of alcohol who supported the 18th amendment

18th amendment


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