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Saturated Solution

the maximum amount of solute for a given quantity of solvent


the amount of solute that dissolves in a given quantity of solvent

unsaturated solution

a solution in which more solute can be dissolved


pairs of liquid that dissolve in each other in all proportions


liquid solutes and solvents that are not soluble in each other

Supersaturated Solution

a mixture that has more dissolved solute than is predicted by its solubility at a given temperature

Henry's Law

at a given temperature the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid


the strength of a solution

Dilute solution

a solution that contains a small amount of solute

Concentrated Solution

contains a large amount of solute

Molarity (M)

the concentration of solute in a solution expressed as the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 liter of solution

Colligative Property

A property of a solution that depends on the number, not the identity, of the solute particles.

Freezing Point Depression

the difference in temperature between the freezing point of a solution and the freezing point of the pure solvent

Boiling Point Elevation

the difference in temperature between the boiling point of a solution and the boiling point of the pure solvent


the study of energy changes that occur during chemical reactions and changes in state

Chemical Potential Energy

energy stored in chemical bonds

Heat (q)

energy that transfers from one object to another because of a temperature difference between the objects


a part of the universe on which you focus your attention


everything else in the universe

Law of Conservation of Energy

the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another

Endothermic Process

a process that absorbs heat from the surroundings


chemical reaction in which energy is primarily given off in the form of heat

Specific Heat

the heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree centigrade


the precise measurement of heat flow out of a system for chemical and physical processes


an insulated device used to measure the absorption or release of heat in chemical or physical processes

Enthalpy (H)

the heat content of a system at constant pressure

Thermochemical Equation

a chemical equation that includes the enthalpy change

Heat of Reaction

the enthalpy change for a chemical equation exactly as it is written

Heat of Combustion

the heat of reaction for the complete burning of one mole of a substance

Molar Heat of Fusion (∆Hfus)

heat absorbed by one mole of substance in melting from solid-liquid at constant temperature

Molar Heat of Solidification (∆Hsolid)

heat lost when one mole of liquid solidifies at constant temperature

Molar Heat of Vaporization (∆Hvap)

the heat that must be added to 1 mole of liquid to convert it to vapor with no change in temperature

Molar Heat of Condensation (∆Hcon)

the amount of heat r4eleased when 1 mole of vapor condenses at the normal boiling point

Molar Heat of Solution (∆Hsoln)

change heat cause by dissolution of one mole substance

Hess' Law of Heat Summation

states that if you add two or more thermochemical equations to give a final equation, then you can also add the heats of reaction to give the final heat of reaction

Standard Heat of Formation (∆Hf)

is the change in enthalpy that accompanies the formation of one mole of a compound from its elements with all substances in their standard states at 25C


amount of change of one measurement in a given amount of time

Collision Theory

atoms, ions, and molecules can react to form products when they collide, provided that the particles have enough kinetic energy

Activation Energy

the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction

Activated Complex

an unstable arrangement of atoms that exists momentarily at the peak of the activation-energy barrier; an intermediate or transitional structure formed during the course of a reaction

Transition State

a term sometimes used to refer to the activated complex


a substance that interferes with the action of a catalyst

Reversible Reaction

a reaction in which the conversion of reactants into products and the conversion of products into reactants occur simultaneously

Chemical Equilibrium

In a reversible chemical reaction, the point at which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction.

Equilibrium Position

the relative concentrations of the reactants and products at equilibrium

Le Chatelier's Principle

when a stress is applied to a system in dynamic equilibrium, the system changes in a way that relieves the stress

Equilibrium Constant (Keq)

The ratio of product concentrations to reactant concentration at equilibrium, with each concentration raised to a power equal to the number of moles of that substance

Solubility Product Constant (Ksp)

an equilibrium constant that can be applied to the solubility of electrolytes; it is equal to the product of the concentration terms each raised to the power of the coefficient of the substance in the dissociation equation

Rate Law

an expression relating the rate of a reaction to the concentration of the reactants

Specific Rate Constant (K)

a proportionality constant relating the concentrations of reactants to the rate of the reaction

First Order Reaction

the reaction rate is directly proportional to the concentration of only one reactant

Elementary Reaction

a reaction in which reactants are converted to products in a single step

Reaction Mechanism

a series of elementary reactions that take place during the course of a complex reaction

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