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Vocabulary - Sections 1 & 2


A segment of DNA on a chromosome that controls the production of proteins and codes for a specific trait

homologous chromosome

one of a matching pair of chromosomes, one inherited from each parent


sex cell that has half the number of chromosomes (23 in humans)


a cell with one of each kind of chromosome (represented as "n"... in humans thats 23).


the process by which one haploid gamete combines with another


the result of fertilization. A cell with "n" female and "n" male chromosomes that now has "2n".


a process that is a type of cell division that results in a gamete being formed that contains half the number of chromosomes of its parent. It's called Reduction Division.

crossing over

exchange of genetic material (chromosomal segments) between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis


the branch of biology that studies heredity, began with Mendel (the father of genetics)


an alternative form of a single gene passed from generation to generation


describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait


trait that will only appear in the phenotype if organism inherits two of them; covered up by the dominant gene


a trait where the two alleles are the same


a trait where the alleles for a trait are different


an organisms allele pair.


what an organism looks like as a consequence of its allele pair

law of segregation

states that the two alleles for each trait separate during meiosis AND during fertilization two alleles are each trait unite.


the offspring of parents that have different forms of a trait (heterozygous)

law of independent assortment

Mendel's law that states that a random distribution of alleles occur during gamete formation. Genes on separate chromosomes sort independently during meiosis.

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