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19 terms

GACS lclab Biology- Chapter 10- Genetics- Vocabulary

Vocabulary - Sections 1 & 2
STUDY
PLAY
gene
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that controls the production of proteins and codes for a specific trait
homologous chromosome
one of a matching pair of chromosomes, one inherited from each parent
gamete
sex cell that has half the number of chromosomes (23 in humans)
haploid
a cell with one of each kind of chromosome (represented as "n"... in humans thats 23).
fertilization
the process by which one haploid gamete combines with another
diploid
the result of fertilization. A cell with "n" female and "n" male chromosomes that now has "2n".
meiosis
a process that is a type of cell division that results in a gamete being formed that contains half the number of chromosomes of its parent. It's called Reduction Division.
crossing over
exchange of genetic material (chromosomal segments) between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
genetics
the branch of biology that studies heredity, began with Mendel (the father of genetics)
allele
an alternative form of a single gene passed from generation to generation
dominant
describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait
recessive
trait that will only appear in the phenotype if organism inherits two of them; covered up by the dominant gene
homozygous
a trait where the two alleles are the same
heterozygous
a trait where the alleles for a trait are different
genotype
an organisms allele pair.
phenotype
what an organism looks like as a consequence of its allele pair
law of segregation
states that the two alleles for each trait separate during meiosis AND during fertilization two alleles are each trait unite.
hybrid
the offspring of parents that have different forms of a trait (heterozygous)
law of independent assortment
Mendel's law that states that a random distribution of alleles occur during gamete formation. Genes on separate chromosomes sort independently during meiosis.