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Get Quizlet's official HESI A2 - 1 term, 1 practice question, 1 full practice test
Terms in this set (50)
•Some medications are administered to the mother to treat the fetus
•____________ (fetal tachycardia or heart failure)
•_____________(exposure to maternal syphilis)
•_______________ (decrease respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants)
•Digoxin (fetal tachycardia or heart failure)
•Penicillin (exposure to maternal syphilis)
•Corticosteroids (decrease respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants)
___________ drugs are given to inhibit labor and maintain a pregnancy.
What are the primary 4 examples of tocolytics?
Drugs used to terminate pregnancy?
Drugs given for boggy uterus to stop hemorrhage postpartum?
Methylergonovine (Methergine)- not for high BP, used after the birth of the placenta
Carbopost (Hemebate)- not for asthma
•Prostaglandins given in pregnancy: include?
•Promote cervical ripening and thinning, which facilitates labor
•To promote uterine contractility for the expulsion of the fetus and placenta in an abortion
•To increase uterine contractility and decrease uterine bleeding in the postpartum period
•Dinoprostone (Prostin E2 Gel, Prepidil, Cervidil)
•Carboprost Tromethamine (Hemabate)
Lyse (break down) existing clots
What is TPA used for?
Tissue plasminogen activator, or tPA, is the only FDA-approved treatment for ischemic or thrombotic stroke, which is stroke caused by a blood clot interrupting blood flow to a region of the brain.
tPA drugs include?
Clopidogrel is what type of drug?
Atorvastatin, Rosuvastatin, Simvastatin, Lovastatin, Fluvastatin are what kind of drugs?
the STATIN drugs Decrease production of cholesterol to decrease total serum cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, triglycerides
fenofibrate and Gemifibrozil (used for)
Increase oxidation of fatty acids in liver and muscle tissue, decreasing hepatic production of triglycerides, decrease VLDL cholesterol, increase HDL cholesterol
"FIB" to yourself that your cholesterol is good when really you need to lower LDL and increase HDL
Cholestyramine, Colesevelam, Colestipol used for?
Bile Acid Sequestrants
•Reduces LDL cholesterol, with little or no effect on HDL cholesterol and either no effect or an increased effect on triglyceride levels
"Cole needed to reduce his LDL without effecting his HDL
What cholestrol drug works by decreaseing LDL, but also INCREASES HDL?
What does Erythrocyte hematopoietic drugs do?
What is and example of this drug?
•Helps the body make more RBCs
-•Stimulates erythropoiesis by stimulating erythroid progenitor cells; this causes release of reticulocytes (immature RBC) from the bone marrow, leading to an increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels
•Epoetin alfa (Epogen, Procrit), Darbepoetin Alfa
What does filgrastim, Pegfilgrastim, Sargramostim do? what kind of drug is it?
-Granulocyte colony stimulation factors (type of drug)
-stimulates production of neutrophils (what it does)
•Given to stimulates blood cell production by bone marrow in patients with bone marrow transplantation or chemotherarpy-induced neutropenia
-•Stimulate the production, maturation, and activation or neutrophils within bone marrow
"Tim" needs to increase his neutrophils because chemo gave him neutropenia
What does interferon do?
turns on immune system
_________________ is a
•Biologic response modifiers that bind to specific cell-surface receptors and alter intracellular activities
•Has both antiviral and antineoplastic activities
•Exerts its cellular activities by binding to specific membrane receptors on the cell surface enhancing immune response, inhibiting viral replication in virus-infected cells.
•Enhances the function of the immune system by increasing phagocytic activity of macrophages and monocytes, which augments cytotoxicity against cancer cells.
•Suppresses growth and reproduction of similar cells by cell division
•Interfeon Alfa-2b (Intron A) - prototype
•Interferon Alfa-2b with ribavirin (Rebetron)
•Interferon Afla-2a (Roferon-A)
•Peginterfeon Alfa-2a (Pegasys)
•Peginterferon Alfa-2b (PEG-Intron)
•Interferon Alfacon-1 (Infergen)
•Interferon Beta-1a (Avonex, Rebif)
•Interferon Beta-1b (Betaseron)
•Interferon gamma-1b (Actimmune)
•___________ are suspension of microorganisms or their antigenic products that have been killed (inactivated) or attenuated (weakened or reduced in virulence) so they can induce antibody formation while preventing infection altogether or causing only a very mild form of it
•Attenuated vaccines produce active immunity (usually, lifelong)
_________ are bacterial toxins or products that have been modified to destroy toxicity while retaining antigenic properties
•Toxoid immunity is not permanent
What are vaccines are considered toxoids?
•H. influenzae type b (Hib) (ActHIB, pedvaxHIB, Hiberix)
•Hepatitis A (Havrix, Vaqta)
•Hepatitis B (Engerix-B, Recombivax HB)
•Human Papillomavirus (HPV) (Gardasil, Cervarix)
•Influenza TIV (Afluria, Agriflu, Fluarix)
•Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR)
•Penumococcal Polyvalent (Pneumovax 23)
•Pneumococcal 13-valent (Prevnar)
•Poliomyelitis, inactivated (IPV) (IPOL)
•Rabies Vaccine (Imovas, RabAvert)
•Rotavirus (RotaTeq, Rotarix)
•Zoster Vaccine (Zostavax)
•Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids (pediatric type) (DT)
•Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxoids (adult type) (Td)
•__________ are the biologic products used for passive immunity; they rapidly provide temporary immunity for 1-3 months in people exposed to or experiencing an infectious disease
•The goal is to prevent or modify the disease process
•CMV immune globulin, intravenous, human (CMV-IGIV) (CytoGam)
•Hepatitis B immune globulin, human (HBIG) (BayHep B, Nabi-HB)
•Immune globulin (human) (IG; IGIM) (BayGam)
Difference between innate, adaptive, and passive immunity?
Innate immunity: Everyone is born with innate (or natural) immunity, a type of general protection. For example, the skin acts as a barrier to block germs from entering the body. And the immune system recognizes when certain invaders are foreign and could be dangerous.
Adaptive immunity: Adaptive (or active) immunity develops throughout our lives. We develop adaptive immunity when we're exposed to diseases or when we're immunized against them with vaccines.
Passive immunity: Passive immunity is "borrowed" from another source and it lasts for a short time. For example, antibodies in a mother's breast milk give a baby temporary immunity to diseases the mother has been exposed to.
Active immunity natural vs artificial?
Natural: exposed to disease
Passive immunity natural vs artificial?
Natural: mom to baby through breast milk
Artificial: injection of immunoglobulins, gamma globulin injections. (so if it says immune globulin, ex. RSV-IGIV, varicella zoster immune globulin-VZIG then it is considered passive immunity)
Cytotoxic Immunosuppressive Agents
-Damage or kill dividing cells.
-Metabolism occurs int the ______, resulting in inactive metabolites
-Excretion takes place in ________.
Examples: Methotrexate, mycophenolate, Azathioprine, Leflunomide
Cyclosporine, Everolimus, Sirolimus, Tacrolimus are used for?
Drugs to suppress immunity
•Conventional Antirejection Agents
•Used to prevent transplant rejection reactions
•These drugs selectively inhibit proliferation of helper T cells and expression of cytokines, these drugs reduce the activity of other immune cells involved in graft rejection
"Cyclo" "MUSt" prevent rejection of transplants
what are these drugs used for?
Immune suppressant, used for transplant rejection prophylactics.
(think about cyclosporine, mus, and mab are immune suppressant drugs
_____________ type of drugs are Potent anti-inflammatory agents that suppress the systemic immune response
These drugs work by?
•Act more rapidly than cytotoxic immunosuppressants for autoimmune disorders and greatly improve QOL for patients with rheumotoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. Anti inflammatory
acetylcysteine May be given PO or IV
antidote for anticholinergics (Atropine)
Physostigmine (may be given IV over 2 minutes, or IM)
-Anticholinesterse - increases ACh
-Used in anticholinergic toxicity
-Crosses the blood-brain barrier (CNS)
Antidote for benzodiazepines
IV: 0.2mg over 30s; if no response, give 0.3mg over 30s; additional doses of 0.5mg q1min to a total of 3mg
beta blocker antidote
Given IV 50-150 mcg/kg over q minute. Then continues IV 2-5mg/h as needed
Increases myocradial contractility and increases BP
Calcium Channel Blockers antidote
Calcium gluconate 10%
IV: 1 gm over 5 minutes, may be repeated
Increases myocardial contractility
Symptomatic bradycardia, organophosphate poisoning. cholinergic overdose
cholinergic drugs work by stimulating ____________ system as well as ___________.
anticholinergic drugs works by blocking _____________.
Cholinergic -agents that stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system in the same manner as acetylcholine.
-Increases bladder contraction to increase emptying.
(Pyridostigmine., Neostigmine., Muscarine.)
Anticholinergics- antiparasympathetic drug. Blocks acetylcholine, Anticholinergics can treat a variety of conditions, including:
overactive bladder (OAB)
chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD)
(Atropine, glycopyrrolate, ipratropium (Atrovent), orphenadrine, oxybutynin
digoxin immune FAB. 40 mg for each 0.6 mg of digoxin ingested.
Recommended for severe toxicity; reverse cardiac and extracardiac symptoms in a few minutes
NOTE: Serum digoxin levels increase after antidote is given, but the drug is bound and therefore inactive
Deferoxamine- can be give IM or IV
Indicated for serum iron levels: >500mg/dL or serum levels, >350mg/dL with GI or cardiovascular symptoms. Can bind and remove a portion of an ingested dose; urine becomes red as iron is exceeded
a procedure in which excess metals, such as iron, are removed from the blood
Isoniazid (INH) indications
TB prophylaxis and treatment
Isoniazid (INH) antidote
Pyridoxine (Vit B6)
Indicated for management of seizures and correction of acidosis
Treatment for TB includes what 4 drugs?
Treatment of these four antibiotics can completely cure the disease:
Children - PO: 10mg/kg Q8h for 5d
Adults - IV: 0.4-2mg PRN
Children - IV 0.1mg/kg per dose
Can also be given IM, subQ, or by ET tube
Antidote for phenothiazine antipsychotic agents?
a group of antihistamine drugs that became the first group of effective antipsychotic medications
Given to relieve extrapyramidal symptoms (movement disorders)
tricyclic antidepressants antidote
To treat cardiac dysrhythmias, conduction disturbances, and hypotension
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