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Each year, the almost 7 percent of adults in the united states suffer from a severe unipolar pattern of ___________, and another 5 percent suffer mild forms.


As many as_________ percent of adults worldwide experience a severe depressive depressive episode during their lifetime.


It appears tht the risk of experiencing depression has ________ in the last 100 years.


__________ are two times more likely to suffer depression than the other group


While________ of severely depressed people recover within six weeks and ______ within a year, those who have been pressed are more likely to become depressed again.

One half; 90%

The median age for the onset of unipolar depression in the united states is _______ year



Miserable, loss of pleasure, anxiety


lack of drive, initiative, and spontaneity. "paralysis of will"


less active and less productive


hold extremely negative views of themselves. they consider themselves inadequate, undesirable, inferior, perhaps evil. they blame themselves for everything


headaches, indigestion, constipation, dizzy spells, and general pain.

DSM-IV-TR specifies that the diagnosis of a major depressive episode is made when a person experiences at least______ symptoms of depression that lastn_______ weeks or more. Furthermore, psychotic symptoms may be present in extreme cases


Although he feels fine most of the year, Clark feels extremely depressed from thanksgiving until well past new year's day


Sherrie has been experiencing symptoms including excessive crying, loss of appetite, feelings of hopelessness and insomnia since the birth of her son Bree weeks ago


Over the last 10 years, Debbie has experienced seven depressive episodes. She feast that she will never have a "normal" life


Majorie's primary and most debilitating symptom is that she feels unable to move. Her face shows no emotion whatsoever and she does not speak, even when spoken to, she stays in bed for days on end.


Until recently, richard loved to go to basketball games and socialize with friends,Richard takes non interest in any activity. He states that he feels like a robot going through the motions. Richard feels most depressed in the very early morning; he typically wakes up at 3:00 or 4:00am and is unable to fall back asleep because he feels so terrible


It is a more chronic but less ______ pattern of unipolar depression.


Biologicl factors of major depression

Genetic predisposition, Biochemistry

Genetics of biology for major depression

Family studies-20%
Twin studies- MZ--> 46%, DZ--> 20%
adoption studies-


Found a group of severely depressed adopties and non -depressed adopters. Everly depressed was significant in biological family.

Major depression mostly plays a role in...

Severly depressed


Catecholamine. People who are depressed have lower levels of...


Indoleamine; neuron modulator - regulates the activity of neuropenphrine

the brain circuit involved in unipolar depression includes?

Pre frontal cortex, the hippocampus, the amygdala, Brodmann area 25


Negative emotions

Brodmann area 25

A necessary and sufficient area for depression


Recall memories

typically, a depressed mood and only two or three other symptoms are present and the depresion persists for at least _____ _____ in adults

two years

if the dysthymic disorder leads to major depression, it is called _______

double depression

researchers have discovered that across cultures, depressed people experience more ________ life events just before the onset of their disorder than do nondepressed people.


reactive (exogenous) depression

follows clear-cut stressful events

endogenous depression

be a response to internal factors

_______ ________ studies have shown a higher rate of depression in close relatives of depressed people (20%) than in the population at large (less than 10%).

family pedigee

a recent twin study found that one of 200 pairs of twins, the concordance rate for depression among monozygotic (identical) twins was ___ percent, whereas the concordance rate in dizygotic (fraternal) twins was only ____ percent.


_____ parents of adoptees hospitalized for severe depression had a much higher occurence of severe depression than ______ parents of nondepressed adoptees.

biological ; biological

postpartum depression, in which symptoms of clinical depression can last up to ________ following the birth of a child, is experienced by __ to ____ percent of new mothers.

a year; 10; 30


a catecholamine precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and also released at synapses


a neurotransmitter that affects hunger,sleep,arousal,and mood. appears in lower than normal levels in depressed persons

why does some high blood pressure medications cause depression?

lowered serotonin and/or norepinephrine activity

what neurotransmitters causes depression

low levels of serotonin and norepinephrine

researchers have found that depression may be related to endocrine system funtioning. as you have read, endocrine glands release hormones that affect the activity of various organ systems in the body. hat are the two hormones that have been iplicated in depression?

cortisol; the stress hormone

name four brain areas believed to be part of the brain circuit responsible for unipolar depression

prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, brodmann area 25

the brain's ____________ ________ is involved in many important brain functions, such as mood, attention, and immune functioning.

prefrontal cortex

the hippocampus is one of the few brain areas to perform an activity called ___________, proudcing new neurons throughout adulthood.


PET and fMRI scans indicate that blood flow and activity in the __________, which is believed to be involved in expression of negative emotions and memories, is 50 percent greater in depressed persons than nondepressed persons.


which freudian concept- a teenager fails to gain admittance to his father's college and becomes depressed because he unconsciously believes that his father will no longer love him.

symbolic or imagined loss

object relations theorists suggest hat people whose parents pushed them toward excessive _________ or excessive_____ are more likely to become depressed when faced with the loss of a relationship

dependence; self-reliance

infants and children under age 6 who are separated from their mothers can experience a reaction called _______ depression.


one study found that depressed medical patients were more likely to have a lost a ______ during childhood, compared to nondepressed patients.


compared to nondepressed people, depressed people were more likely to say that their parents raised them with an "_________controL" style, which is defined as a mixture of low care and high ________.

affectionless; protection

one limitation of psychodynamic research on depression is that findings do not extablish that early loss and inadequate parenting are typically responsible for the development of depression. list other limitations.

research findings on the relationship between childhood loss and depression are inconsistent.
many components of the psychodynamic view of dperession are impossible to test empirically.

lewinsohn suggests that ______ rewards decrease as a person becomes more depressed; some studies have indicated that _______characteristics contribute to the loss of these rewards.

social; depressive

when people who hold maladaptive attidues face an upsetting event later in life (such as a failure at work or in a relationship), a series of ______ thoughts are triggered. according to beck, these thoughts take the form of the "Cogntivie triad."


arbitrary inference

negative conclusions based on little evidence. ex. i'm stupid because i failed this one test.


minimizing importance of positive experiences/magnifying importance of negative experiences.

according to Beck, people experience (or manifest) the cognitive triad in the form of automatic thoughts, a steady train of unpleasant, "reflexive" thoughts that remind depressed people of their assumed _______ and the _________ of their situation.

inadequacies; hopelessness

what are te two primary components of martin seligman's cognitive-behavioral iew of depression?

that they no longer have control over the reinforcements in their lives and that they themselves are responsible for this helpless state.

dogs were strapped into hammocks and given_____ electric shocks from which they could not escape.


the combination of attributions that seems to indicate a person is most likely to be depressed is _________, ___________________, and ___________.

internal; global; stable

yet another revision of the learned helplessness theory suggests that only attributions. list two other problems with the theory

laboratory helplessness does not parallel depression in every respect(people are anxious and depressed in labs). much of thelearned helplessness research relies on animal subjects.

the study mentioned on textbook page 260 regarding the correlation between marital satisfaction and depression found that the participants who were in unsatisfying relationships were ______ times ______ likely to experience a major depressive episode.

three; more

the researchers in the same study mentioned in question 2 estimated that eliminating marital stress could prevent ______ of the cases of major depression.


women around the world are at least ______ as likely as ment o be diagnosed with unipolar depression.


the artifact theory

holds that women and men are equally prone to depression but that clinicians often fail to detect depression in men.

hormone explanation

holds that hormone changes trigger depression in many women

life stress theory

suggests that women in our society experience more stress than men

body dissatisfaction explanation

states that females in western society are taught, almost from birth to seek a low body weight and slender body shape- goals that are unreasonable, unhealthy, and often unattainable

lack-of-control theory

picks up on the learned helplessness research and argues that women may be more prone to depression because they feel less control than men over then men over their lives.

self-blam explanation

holds that women are more likely than men to blame their failures on lack of ability and to attribute their successes to luck-

rumination theory

women are more likely than men to ruminate when their moods darken, perhaps making them more vulnerable to the onset of clinical depression.

rather than feelings sad and apathetic, people in a state of mania experience dramatic and ______ elvations in mood.


DSM-IV-TR criteria for manic episode include experiencing an abnormally ______ or _______ mood, as well as at least _______ other symptoms of mania, for a minimum of one week.

high; irritable; three

if symptoms of mania are less severe and of shorter duration, the diagnosis would be a ______episode


bipolar I

a type of bipolar disorder marked by full manic and major depressive episodes

bipolar II

a type of bipolar disorder marked by mildly manic (hypomanic) episodes and major depressive episodes.

the prevalence of bipolar disorders is the same for mena nd women, at all socioeconomic levels, and in all ______ groups


the age of onset is usually between ____ and ____ years


a diagnosis of _______ disorder would be assigned to a person who experienced alternating periods of hypomanic and mild depressive symptoms for a period of two or more years.


contrary to the expectations of theorists, research has shown that ania, like depression, is associated with a low supply of _____


what causes mania?

high levels of norepinephrine

at rest, the outside of a neuron is positively charged because more ______ ions are outside vs. inside the cell membrane.


the neuron's receptor sites are stimulated, resulting in a "wave" of electrochemical activity down the _____.


some researchers believe that improper sodium ion transport that causes neurons to fire too easily results in ______, while that which causes neurons to resist firing results in ________.

mania; depression

name six brain structures that have been shown to display abnormalities in people with bipolar disorders

basal ganglia; cerebellum; dorsal raphe nucleus; striatum; amygdala; prefrontal cortex

studies involving close relatives and twins of those with bipolar disorders indicate that the more similar the ________ ________ of two people, the more similar their tendency to develop a disorder

genetic makeup

they select families that have high rates of bipolar disorder over ______-


they determine whether the bipolar pattern follows the distribution patterns of other family traits such as?

color blindness, red hair, medical syndromes

clinicians and researchers have come to believe that bipolar disorders can be best explained by a focus on one kind of variable: ______ factors


what role does gender play in the incidence of depression?

women are twice as likely to suffer from depression as men.

which of the following would be a cognitive symptom of depression?

a negative view of onself

to receive a diagnosis of major depressive

mood fluctuation during the year

what structure is responsible for secreting cortisol

adrenal glands

which theoretical perspective employs the concept of "symbolic loss" to explain depression?


what disorder do psychodynamic therapists believe that unonscious grieving over real or imagined loss produces?

unipolar depression

who developed a behavioral theory of depression based on insufficient positive reinforcement?


every time sophie's hw is not donw her teacher punishes her. when she does it, she gets a low grade. if she complains about never being recognized for trying, she is given detention. this is an example of a set of conditions that, over time, is most likely to lead to?


what critical feature does bipolar II have that is different from bipolar I?


some researchers believe that symptoms of mania can be due to ?

abnormal function of proteins that transport sodium ions

within the united states, differences in overall depression rates between minority groups are?


cognitive therapy

a therapy developed by Aaron beck that helps people identify and change the maladaptive assumptions and ways of thinking that help course their psychological disorders.

interpersonal psychotherapy

a treatment for unipolar depression that is based on the belief that clarifying and changing one's interpersonal problems will help lead to recovery

couple therapy

a therapy format in whichthe therapist works with two people who share a long-term relationship

electroconvulsive therapy

a treatment for depression in which electrades attached to a patient's head send an electrical current through the brain, causing a convulsion.

MAO inhibitor

an antidepressant drug that prevents the action of the enzyme monomine oxidase


an antidepressant drug that as imipramine that has three rings in its molecular structure

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

a group of second-generation antidepressant drugs that increase serotonin activity specifically, without affecting other neurotransmitters

vagus nerve stimulation

a treatment procedure for depression in which on implanted pulse generator sends regular electrical signals to a person's vagus nerve; the nerve, in turn, stimulates the brain

transcranial magnetic stimulation

a treatment procedure for depression in which on electromagnetic coil, which is placed on or above a person's head, sends a current into the individual's brain

deep brain stimulation

a treatment procedure for depression in which a pacemaker powers electrodes that have been implanted in Brodmann area 25, thus stimulating that brain area.


a metallic element that occurs in nature as a mineral salt and is an effective treatment for bipolar disorders

mood stabilizing drugs

psychotropic drugs that help stabilize the moods of people suffering from bipolar mood disorder. also known as antibipolar drugs

second messengers

chemical changes within a neuron just after the neuron receives a neurotransmitter message and just before it responds

personality disorder

a very rigid pattern of inner experience and outward behavior that differs from the expectations of one's culture and leads to dysfunctioning.

paranoid personality disorder

a personality disorder marked by a pattern of distrust and suspiciousness of others

schizoid personality disorder

a personality disorder characterized by persistent avoidance of social relationships and little expression of emotion

schizotypal personality disorder

a personality disorder characterized by extreme discomfort in close relationships, odd forms of thinking and perceiving, and behavioral eccentricities.

antisocial personality disorder

a personality disorder marked by a general pattern of disregard for and violation of other people's rights.

borderline personality disorder

a personality disorder characterized by repeated instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and mood and by impulsive behavior.

histrionic personality disorder

a personality disorder characterized by a pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking. once called hysterical personality disorder.

narcissistic personality disorder

a personality disorder marked by a broad pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy.

avoidant personality disorder

a personality disorder characterized by consistent discomfort and restraint in social situations, overwhelming feelings of inadequacy, and extreme sensitivity to negative evaluation.

dependent personality disorder

a personality disorder characterized by a pattern of clinging and obedience, fear of separation, and an ongoing need to be taken care of.


a personality disorder marked by such an intense focus on orderliness, perfectionism, and control that the individual loses flexibilit, openness, and efficiency.

passive-aggressive personality disordre

a category of personality disorder listed in past versions of the DSM, marked by a pattern of negative attitudes and resistnace to the demands of others.

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