APUSH Unit 2: Revolution
VOCABVOCABVOCAB!!!!!!! American Revolution.
Terms in this set (58)
Outspoken member of House of Burgesses; inspired colonial patriotism with "Give me liberty or give me death" speech
Albany Plan of Union
plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
An alliance of five northeastern Amerindian peoples (after 1722 six) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, it dominated W. New England. (488)
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
-Led Boston Tea Party
Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
Treaty of Paris of 1763
Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada, land east of the Mississippi, to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain
America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members
Stamp Act of 1764
A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809)
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain
Declaration of Independence
This document was
adopted on July 4, 1776. It
established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the
majority of this document. Stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence.
Articles of Confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who served under George Washington in the American Revolution (1757-1834)
Winter of Valley Forge
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
The Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. He increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies, and this is why England won the war.
Chief Little Turtle
Chief of the Miami tribe and one of the most successful Native American military leaders of his era. He led his followers in several victories over the US in the 1790s, but was an advocate for peace with the U.S. in the years leading up to the War of 1812.
Committees of Correspondence
Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
..., in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
1744, law passed by Parliament in response to the Boston Tea Party, Expanded the borders of Canada, took land away from the colonies and gave it to Quebec, tried to take away colonies local self-rights
1766 British law stating that Parliament had absolute right to tax colonies and make laws to be enacted in the colonies; issued at the same time as repeal of Stamp Act
Letters From A Farmer in Pennsylvania
Written in response to the Townshend Acts by John Dickinson, this discourse asserted the idea that "no taxation without representation" was an essential part of English government, and that Parliament had no right to impose duties on British colonies.
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.
Olive Branch Petition
A 1775 declaration to King George III, written by John Dickinson, saying that the colonists were still loyal to the king and implored him to seek a peaceful resoltuion to the conflict. The king ignored the petition, viewing the colonists as insubordinate subjects of the crown.
Taxation without representation
The taxes that were put on the colonists were decided upon by Parliament. They were voted upon by the members. However, none of the members were colonists. This was another thing that angered the colonists because they were being taxed without being represented.
Mercy Otis Warren
(1728 - 1814) was an American writer and playwright. She was known as the "Conscience of the American Revolution". Mercy Otis was America's first female playwright, having written unbylined anti-British and anti-Loyalist propaganda plays from 1772 to 1775, and was the first woman to create a Jeffersonian (anti-Federalist) interpretation of the Revolution,
British prime minister/ loyalist. Said that colonies should help pay off the war debt. Believed in mercantilism. Charles Townshend once said to him, "I dare tax the Americans."
3rd President of the United States , He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
American intellectual, inventor, and politician He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution.
African American slave who gathered military information about the British for the Marquis de Lafayette freed him later after the war was over for his efforts.
(wife of President John Adams) who was an early advocate (supporter) for women's rights. She asked for the men not to forget the women when creating a new government for the United States.
Governor of Boston who ordered cargo of tea to be unloaded in Boston despite colonial objection, Lieutenant Governor (and later Governor) of Massachusetts. Advocated limiting the English liberties for American colonists. British sympathist prior to the American Revolution.
A free black man who was the first person killed in the Revolution at the Boston Massacre
Bernardo de Galvez
Governor of Louisiana, led Spanish armies against Britain during the American Revolution and closed the port of New Orleans to British ships
Battles of Lexington and Concord
The battles of Lexington and Concord initiated the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British. British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston
George Washington's Farewell Address
He advised the nation: 1. to stay away from premenant alliances with foreign nations 2. stay away from political parties
Thomas Jefferson's Inaugural Address
Citizens should unite- for we are all Americans, good government- no injuring others, let people follow their dreams, no taking money, keep the government small
was a Founding Father of the United States, chief of staff to General Washington, one of the most influential interpreters and promoters of the Constitution, the founder of the nation's financial system, and the founder of the first American political party
A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
(1730s and 1740s) Religious movement characterized by emotional preaching (Jonathan Edwards & George Whitefield). The first cultural movement to unite the Thirteen Colonies. Associated with the democratization of religion.
..., the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
"A form of rationalism that admits a natural, rational religion, and therefore a belief in God, based on philosophical theology
A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.
Radical British reformers who believed that extreme corruption had destroyed the British constitution and disenfranchised the common man.
(n.) self-government, political contro
benign neglect (salutary neglect)
English policy of leaving colonies alone as long as they were maing money --> colonists became more independent and gained experience in self-government
-1651 wrote the leviathan which argued people were naturally wicked and could not be trusted to govern
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
English thinker that solidified the ideals of English common law, which later helped shape the Declaration of Independence and Constitution