205 terms

AP US History - Entire Year in Terms - Vocab

probably a few typing mistakes - pulled from the 5 Steps to a 5 Glossary
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Abolitionist Movement
movement dedicated to the abolition of slavery that existed primarily in the north in years leading up to the civil war; had both white and black members.
Advertising Age
term first used to describe America's consumer culture of the 1920's, when ads began to influence the choices of purchasers.
affirmative action
policies that began in the 1970's to make up for past discrimination and give minorities and women advantages in applying for certain jobs and in applying for admission to certain universities.
affluent society
term used by economist John Kenneth Galbraith to describe American economy in the 1950's, during which time many Americans became enraptured with appliances and homes in the suburbs
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
AAA - Established by the Agricultural Act of 1932, a new deal bureau designed to restore economic position of farmers by paying them not to farm goods that were being overproduced - eventually struck down as unconstitutional
agricultural marketing act
1929 act championed by Herbert Hoover that authorized the lending of federal money to farmer's cooperatives to buy crops to keep them from the over saturated market; program hampered by lack of adequate federal financial support
Albany Congress
1754 meeting of reps of 7 colonies to coordinate their efforts against French and Native American threats in the Western frontier regions
Alien and Sedition Acts:
proposed and supported by John Adams, gave the president the power to expel aliens deemed "dangerous to the country's well-being" and outlawed publication and public pronouncement of "false, scandalous, and malicious" statements about the government.
Allied Powers
Coalition of nations that opposed Germany, Italy, and Japan in WW2; led by England, Sov Union, and US.
America First Committee
Isolationist group in American that insisted that the US stay out of WW2; held rallies from 1939 to 1941; argued that affairs in Europe should be settled by Europeans and not Americans and stated that the Sov Union was a greater eventual threat than Nazi Germany.
American Colonization Society
Formed in 1817, stated that the best way to end the slavery problem in the US was for blacks to emigrate to Africa. By 1822 a few American blacks emigrated to Liberia. Organization's views were later rejected by most abolitionists.
American Expeditionary Force
Official title of American army sent to Europe to aid England and France after the US entered WW1; army was commanded by General John J Pershing.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
National labor union founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886; original goal was to organize skilled workers by craft. Merged with congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) in 1955.
American Indian Movement (AIM)
Native American organization founded in 1968 to protest government policies and injustices suffered by NA; in 1973 organized armed occupation of Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
American Liberty League
Formed in 1934 by anti-new deal politicians and business leaders to oppose policies of FDR; stated that ND policies brought America closer to fascism.
American System
Economic plan promoted by Speaker of the House Henry Clay in years following the war of 1812; promoted vigorous growth of the American economy and the use of protective tariffs to encourage Americans to buy more domestic goods.
Anaconda Copper Company
Large mining syndicate typical of many companies involved in mining in the western US in the 186/70's; used heavy machinery and professional engineers. Many prospectors who found gold, silver, or copper sold their claims to companies such as this.
Anti-Federalists
Group that opposed the ratification of the proposed constitution of the US in 1787. Many feared that strong central government would remove the processes of gvnt "from the people" and replicate the excesses of the British monarchy.
Anti-Imperialist League
Organization formed in 1898 to oppose American annexation of the Philippines and American imperialism in general. Focused the public on the potential financial, military, and especially moral costs of imperialism.
Anti-Saloon League
Organization founded in 1893 that increased public awareness of the social effects of alcohol on society; supported politicians who favored prohibition and promoted statewide referendums in W and S states to ban alcohol.
Appomattox
In the courthouse of the Virginia city Robert E Lee surrendered his confederate Army to Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865.
Army-McCarthy hearings
1954 televised hearings on charges that McCarthy was unfairly tarnishing the US Army with charges of communist infiltration into the armed forces; hearings were the beginning of the end for McC, whose bullying tactics were repeatedly demonstrated.
Articles of Confederation
Ratified in 1781, this document established the first official gvnt of the US; allowed much power to remain in the states, with the fed gvnt possessing only limited powers. Articles replaced by the Constitution in 1788.
Astrolabe
Instrument that enabled navigators to calculate their latitude using the sun and the stars; allowed for more accuracy in plotting routes during the Age of Discovery.
Atlantic, Battle of the
Began in spring 1941 with the sinking of an American merchant vessel by a German submarine. Armed conflict between warships of US and Germany took place in September of 1941; American merchant vessels were armed by 42.
Atlantic Charter
Fall 1941 agreement bw FDR and Churchill stating that America and GB would support a postwar world based on self-determination and would endorse a would body to ensure "general security"; US agreement to convoy merchant ships across part of Atlantic inevitably drew America closer to conflict with Germany.
Aztecs
Advanced Indian society located in central Mexico; conquered by Cortes. The defeat of the Aztecs was hastened by smallpox brought to MX by the Spanish.
Baby Boom
Large increase in birth rate in the US that began in 1945 and lasted until 1962; new and larger families fueled the move to suburbia that occurred in the 1950's and produced the "youth culture" that would become crucial in the 1960's.
Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
Crisis that occurred when William Howard Taft was president, further distancing him from Progressive supporters of Teddy Roosevelt. Richard Ballinger, Taft's Secretary of the Interior, allowed private businessmen to purchase large amounts of public land in Alaska; Forest Service had Gifford Pinchot (a TR supporter) protested to Congress and was fire by Taft.
Bank War
Political battles surrounding the attempt by president Andrew Jackson to greatly reduce the power of the Second Bank of the US; Jackson claimed the Bank was designed to serve special interests in America and not the common people.
Bataan Death March
Forced march of 76,000 American and Filipino soldiers captured by the Japanese from the Bataan Peninsula in early May 1942; over 10,000 soldiers died during this one-week ordeal.
Bay of Pigs
Failed 1961 invasion of Cuba by US-supported anti-Castro refugees designed to topple Castro from power; prestige of the US, and of the newly elected president, John Kennedy, was damaged by this failed coup attempt.
Bear Flag Republic
Declaring independence from Mexican control, this republic was declared in 1846 by American settlers living in California; this political act was part of a larger American political and military strategy to wrest TX and CA from Mexico.
Beat Generation
Literary movement of the 1950s that criticized the conformity of American society and the ever-present threat of atomic warfare; On The Road by Jack Kerouac, Howl by Allen Ginsberg, and Naked Lunch by William Burroughs were key works of the Beat Generation.
Berlin Airlift
American and British pilots flew in food and fuel to West Berlin during late 1948 and early 1949 because Sov Union and East Germany blockaded other access to West Berlin (which was located in East Germany); Stalin ended this blockade in May 1949. Airlift demonstrated American commitment to protecting Western allies in Europe during the early Cold War period.
Berlin Wall
Concrete structure built in 1961 by Soviets and East Germany physically dividing East and West Berlin; to many in the West, the Wall was symbolic of communist repression in the Cold War era. The wall was finally torn down in 1989.
Bessemer Steel
First produced in 1856 in converter (furnace) invented by Henry Bessemer; was much more durable and harder than iron. Steel was a critical commodity in the Second Industrial Revolution.
bias
No historical writing can be totally objective; observers are always influenced by either conscious or unconscious bias. Conscious bias might be a flattering biography of Lincoln written by an abolitionist in 1865, or an unflattering biography of Lincoln written by a southerner in that same year. Unconscious bias may be created by one's education, predispositions toward subject matter, or even one's race or gender.
Bicameral Legislature
A legislative structure consisting of two houses, this was adopted by the authors of the US Constitution; membership of the states in one house (HR) is determined by population, while in the other house (Senate) all states have equal representation.
Bill of Rights
Added to the Constitution in 1791, the first 10 amendments protected freedom of speech, press, the right to bear arms, and other basic rights of American citizens.
Birth of a Nation
Epic movie released in 1915 by director DW Griffith; portrayed the Reconstruction as a period when Southern blacks threatened basic American values, which the KKK tried to protect; film was lauded by many, including President Woodrow Wilson.
Black Codes
Laws adopted by Southern states in the Recon era that greatly limited the freedom of Southern blacks; in several states blacks could not move, own land, or do anything but farm.
Blacklist
persons accused of being communist from getting work in entertainment and other industries during the period of anticommunist fervor in the late 1940s and early 1950s; some entertainers waited until the mid 60s before working publicly again.
black nationalism
Spurred by Malcolm X and other black leaders, a call for black pride and advancement without the help of whites; this appeared to be a repudiation of the calls for peaceful integration urged by MLKJR. Race riots in Northern cities in the mid 60s were at least partially fueled by supporters of black nationalism.
Black Panthers
Group originally founded in Oakland, CA, to protect blacks from police harassment; promoted militant black power; also ran social programs in several CA cities. Founded by Bobby Seale and Huey P. Newton.
Bleeding Kansas
As a result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, residents of Kansas territory could decide if it would allow slavery or not; as a result, both pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups flooded settlers into Kansas territory. Much violence followed very disputed election in 1855.
bonanza farms
Large farms that came to dominate agricultural life in much of the West in the late 1800s; instead of plots farmed by yeoman farmers, large amounts of machinery were used, and workers were hired laborers, often preforming only specific tasks.
Bonus Army
Group of nearly 17,000 veterans who marched on DC in May 1932 to demand the military bonuses they had been promised; this group was eventually driven out of their camp city by the US Army. This action increased the public perception that the H Hoover administration cared little about the poor.
Boston Massacre
Conflict between British soldiers and Boston civilians on March 5, 1770; after civilians threw rocks and snowballs at the soldiers, the soldiers opened fire, killing five and wounding six.
Boston Tea Party
In response to the Tea Act and additional British taxes on tea, Boston radicals disguised as Native Americas threw nearly 350 chests of tea into Boston harbor on December 16, 1773.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 Supreme Court decision that threw out the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson, ruling that schools could be "separate but equal; ruling and began the long and painful process of school desegregation in the South and other parts of America.
Bulge, Battle of the
December 1944 German attack that was the last major offensive by the Axis powers in WW2; Germans managed to push forward into Belgium but were then driven back. Attack was costly to the Germans in terms of material and manpower.
Bull Moose Party
Name given to the Progressive party in the 1912 presidential campaign; Bull Moose candidate ex-president TR ran against incumbent president WW, with Wilson emerging victoriously.
Bull Run, First Battle of
July 21, 1861 Confederate victory over Union forces, which ended in Union forces fleeing in disarray toward Washington; this battle convinced Lincoln and others in the North that victory over the Confederates would not be as easy as they initially thought.
Bull Run, Second Battle of
Decisive victory by General Robert E. Lee and Confederate forces over the Union army in Aug 1862.
Bunker Hill, Battle of
June 1775 British attack on colonial forces at Breed's Hill outside of Boston; despite frightful losses, the British emerged victorious
Calvinism
Protestant faith that preached salvation "by faith alone" and predestination; desire by Calvinists in England to create a "pure church" in England was only partially successful, thus causing Calvinist Puritans to come to the New World starting in 1620.
Camp David Accords
Treaty between Egypt and Israel brokered by President Jimmy Carter and signed in early 1979; Israel agreed to give back territory in the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt, while Egypt agreed to recognize Israel's right to exist as a nation.
carpetbaggers
Term used by Southerners to mock Northerners who came to the South to gain either financially or politically during the Reconstruction Era.
Central Powers
The alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria that opposed England, France, Russia and later the US in WW1.
Chancellor of the Exchequer
During the era prior to and during the Revolutionary War, this was the head of the dept in the British government that issued and collected taxes; many acts issued by the CotE created great resentment in the American Colonies.
Chancellorsville, Battle of
Brilliant Confederate attack on Union forces led by Stonewall Jackson and Robert E. Lee on May 2-3, 1862; Union defeat led to great pessimism in North and convinced many the South that victory over the North was indeed possible.
Chateau-Thierry, Battle of
On of the first 1918 WW1 battles where soldiers of the American Expeditionary Force fought and suffered sever casualties.
Checkers Speech
Speech made by Richard Nixon on national tv on 9/23/52, where he defended himself against charges that rich supporters had set up a special expense account for his use; by the speech Nixon saved his spot on the 1952 Republican ticket (he was running for vp with Ike E running for p) and saved his political career.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1831 Supreme Court case in which the Cherokee tribe claimed that GA had no right to enforce laws in Cherokee territory, since Cherokees were a sovereign nation; ruling by John Marshall stated Cherokees were a "domestic dependent nation" and had no right to appeal in federal court.
Church of England
Also called the Anglican Church, this was the Protestant church established by King Henry 8; religious radicals desired a "purer" church that was allowed by monarchs of the early seventeenth century, causing some to leave for the Americas.
Circular Letter
In reaction to the 1767 Townshend Acts, the Massachusetts assembly circulated a letter to the other colonies, asking that they work together and jointly issue a petition of protest. Strong willed response of British authorities to the letter influenced the colonial assemblies to work together on a closer basis.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Act that struck down Black Codes and defined the rights of all citizens; also stated that federal government could act when civil rights were violated at the state level. Passed by Congress over the veto of Pres Andrew Johnson.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Key piece of legislation that made discrimination based on race, sex, religion, or national origin illegal; segregation in public restrooms, bus stations, and other public facilities also was declared illegal.
Civil Service Commission
Created by the Pendelton Civil Service Act of 1883, this body was in charge of testing applicants and assigning them to appropriate government jobs; filling jobs on the basis of merit replaced the spoils system, in which government jobs were given as rewards for political service.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
New Deal program that began in 1933, putting nearly 3 million young men to work; workers were paid little, but worked on conservation projects and maintaining beaches and parks. CCC program for young women began in 1937.
Clayton Antitrust Act
1914 act designed to strengthen the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890; certain activities previously committed by big businesses, such as not allowing unions in factories and not allowing strikes, were declared illegal
eras
colonialism - manifest destiny - sectionalism - civil war - Reconstruction - Industrialization - Progressive-ism - WW1 - roaring 20's - the depression - New Deal - WW2 - Cold War - Change : 60's - Stagflation : 70's - Regan - Modern
Cold War
Period between 1945 and 1991 of near continuous struggle between the US and its allies and the Soviet Union and its allies; Cold War tensions were made even more intense by the existence of the atom bomb.
Colonial Assemblies
Existed in all of the British colonies in America; House of Burgesses in Virginia was the first one. Members of colonial assemblies were almost always members of the upper classes of colonial society.
Committee on Public Information
Created by Woodrow Wilson during WW1 to mobilize public opinion for the war, this was the most intensive use of propaganda until that time by the United States. The image of "Uncle Sam" was created for this propaganda campaign.
Committees of Correspondence
First existed in Massachusetts, and eventually in all of the colonies; leaders of resistance to British rule listed their grievances against the British and circulated them to all of the towns of the colony.
Common Sense
Very popular 1776 publication in the colonies written by Englishman Thomas Paine, who had come to America in 1774; repudiated the entire concept of government by monarchy. After publication of this document, public sentiment in the colonies turned decisively toward a desire for independence.
Compromise of 1850
Complex agreement that temporarily lessened tensions between Northern and Southern political leaders, and prevented a possible secession crisis; to appease the South, the Fugitive Slave Act was strengthened; to appease the North, California entered the Union as a free state.
Compromise of 1877
Political arrangement that ended the contested presidential election of 1876. Reps of Southern States agreed not to oppose Rutherford B. Hayes as president despite massive election irregularities. In return, the Union army stopped enforcing Reconstruction legislation in the South, thus ending Reconstruction.
Concord, Battle of
Occurred on April 19, 1775, between British Regulars and Massachusetts militiamen. More than 70 British soldiers died and another 174 were wounded; as a result, a wider conflict between the colonies and the British became much more probable.
Confederate States of America
Eventually made up of 11 former states with Jefferson Davis as its first and only president. Was unable to defeat the North because of lack of railroad lines, lack of industry, and an inability to get European nations to support their cause.
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
Group of unions that broke from the FL in 1938 and organized effective union drives in automobile and rubber industries; supported sit-down strikes in major rubber plants. Re-affiliated with the AFL in 1955.
Conscription
Getting recruits for military service using a draft; this method was used by the American government in all of the wars of the 20th century. Conscription was viewed most negatively during the Vietnam War.
Consumer Society
Many Americans in the 1950s became infatuated with all of the new products produced by technology and went out and purchased more than any prior generation; consumer tastes of the decade were largely dictated by advertising and television.
Containment Policy
Formulated by George Kennan, a policy whereby the US would forcibly stop communist aggression whenever and wherever it occurred; containment was the dominant American policy of the Cold War Era, and forced America to become involved in foreign conflicts such as Vietnam.
Continentals
Soldiers in the "American" army commanded by George Washington in the Revolutionary War; Victory at the Battle of Trenton on December 16, 1776, did much to raise the morale of the soldiers (and convince many of them to reenlist).
Contract with America
1994 pledge by Republican candidates for HR; led by Newt Gingrich, candidates promised to support term limits, balancing the budget, and lessening the size of the federal government. In 1994 Congressional elections, Republicans won both houses of Cong for the first time in 40 years.
Convoy System
System used to protect American ships carrying materials to Great Britain in 1940 and 41; merchant ships were protected by American warships. Firing took place between these ships and German submarines, with American losses.
Copperheads
Democrats in Congress in the first years of the Civil War who opposed Abraham Lincoln and the North's Attack on the South, claiming that the war would result in massive numbers of freed slaves entering the North and a total disruption of the Northern economy.
Coral Sea, Battle of
May 1942 American naval victory over the Japanese; prevented Japanese from attacking Australia. First naval battle where losses on both sides came almost exclusively from bombing from airplanes.
Counterculture
Youth of the 1960s who espoused a lifestyle encompassing drug use, free love, and a rejection of adult authority; actual "hippies" were never more than a small percentage of young people.
Coxey's Army
Supporters of Ohio Populist Jacob Coxey who in 1894 marched on Washington, demanded that the government create jobs for the unemployed; although this group had no effect whatsoever on policy, it did demonstrate the social and economic impact of the Panic of 1893.
Creationism
Belief in the Biblical account of the origin of the universe and the origin of man; believers in creationism and believers in evolution both had their day in court during the 1925 Scopes Trial.
Crittenden Plan
1860 Compromise proposal on the slavery issue designed to defuse tension between North and South; would have allowed slavery to continue in the South and would have denied Congress the power to regulate interstate slave trade. On the advice of newly elected president Lincoln, Republicans in Congress voted against it.
Crusades
From these attempts to recapture the Holy Land, Europeans acquired an appreciation of the benefits of overseas expansion and an appreciation of the economic benefits of slavery.
Cuban Missile Crisis
1962 conflict between the US and the Sov Un over Sov missiles discovered in Cuba; Sovs eventually removed missiles under American pressure. Crisis was perhaps the closest the world came to armed conflict in the Cold War Era.
Currency Act
1764 - British act forbidding the American colonies to issue paper money as legal tender; act was repealed in 1773 by the British as an effort to ease tensions between themselves and the colonies.
Dark Horse Candidate
A candidate for office with little support before the beginning of the nomination process; James K. Polk was the first d-h-c for president in 1844.
Dawes Act
1887 act designed to break up Native American tribes, offered Native American families 160 acres of farmland or 320 acres of land for grazing. Large amounts of tribal lands were not claimed by Native Americans, and thus were purchased by land speculators.
Declaration of Neutrality
Issued by President Woodrow Wilson after the outbreak of WWI in Europe in 1914, stating that the US would maintain normal relations with and continue to trade with both sides in the conflict; factors including submarine warfare made it difficult for America to maintain this policy.
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
1774 measure adopted by the First Continental Congress, stating that Parliament had some rights to regulate colonial trade with Britain, but that Parliament did not have the right to tax the colonies without their consent.
Declaratory Act
1766 British law stating that the Parliament had absolute right to tax the colonies as they saw fit and to make laws that would be enacted in the colonies. Ironically, issued at the same time as the repeal of the Stamp Act.
Deficit Spending
Economic policy where government spends money that it "doesn't have", thus creating a budget deficit. Although "conventional" economic theory disapproves of this, it is commonplace during times of crisis or war (eg the New Deal; post 9/11)
Democratic Party
Had its birth during the candidacy of Andrew Jackson; originally drew its principles from Thomas Jefferson and advocated limited government. In modern times many Democrats favor domestic programs with a larger/more powerful central government.
Democratic Republican
Believed in the ideas of Thomas Jefferson, who wrote the benefits of a limited government and of a society dominated by the yeoman farmer. Opposed to the Federalists, who wanted a strong national state and a society dominated by commercial interests.
Desert Shield
After Iraq invaded Kuwait on August 2, 1990, President Bush sent 230k American troops to protect Saudi Arabia.
Desert Storm
Feb 1991 attack on Iraqi forces in Kuwait by the US and other allied forces; although Iraq was driven from Kuwait, Saddam Hussein remained in power in Iraq.
Detente
The lessening of tensions between nations. A policy of detente between the US and Sov Un and Communist China began during the presidency of Nixon; the architect of policy was National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger.
Dien Bien Phu
1954 Victory of Vietnamese forces over the French, causing the French to leave nam and all of Indochina; Geneva Peace Accords that followed established North and South Vietnam.
Direct Primary
Progressive-era reform adopted by some states that allowed candidates for state officers to be nominated by the rand and file party members in statewide primaries instead of by the party bosses, who had traditionally dominated the nominating process.
"Dollar Diplomacy"
Foreign policy of president William Howard Taft, which favored increased American investment in the world as the major method for instead increasing American influence and stability abroad; in some parts of the world, such as Latin America, the increased American influence was resented.
Domesticity
Social trend of post WW2 America; many Americans turned to family and home life as a source of contentment; emphasis on family as a source of fulfillment forced some women to abandon the workforce and achieve "satisfaction" as homemakers.
Dominion of New England
Instituted by King James II in 1686. Sir Edmund Andros governed the colonies of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, Plymouth, and New Hampshire as a single entity without an elective assembly; Adros was finally overthrown by militiamen in Boston in April 1689 (after the Glorious Revolution).
domino theory
Major tenet of Cold War containment policy of the United States held that if one country in a region turned communist, other surrounding countries would soon follow; this theory convinced many that to save all of SE Asia, it was necessary to resist communist aggression in nam.
Double V Campaign
WW2 Policy supported by several prominent black newspapers, stating that blacks in America should work for victory over the Axis powers but at the same time work for victory over oppression at home; black leaders remained frustrated during the war by continued segregation of the armed forces.
Dred Scot Case
Supreme Court case involving a man who was born a slave but had then lived in both a nonslave state and a nonslave territory and was now petitioning for his legal freedom; in 1857 the Court ruled that slaves were not people but were property, that they could not be citizens, and thus had no legal right to petition the court for anything. Ruling also stated that Missouri Compromise, which banned slavery in the territories, was unconstitutional.
Dust Bowl
Great Plains region that suffered severe drought and experienced severe dust storms during the 1930s; because of extreme conditions many who lived in the Dust Bowl left their farms and went to California to work as migrant farmers.
Eisenhower Doctrine
Policy established in 1957 that promised military and economic aid to "friendly" nations in the middle east; policy was established to prevent communism from gaining a foothold in the region. Policy first utilized later that year when US gave large amounts of aid to King Hussein of Jordan to put down international rebellion.
Electoral College
Procedure outlined in the Constitution for the election of the president; under this system votes of the electors from each state, and not the popular vote, determine who is elected president. As was demonstrated in 2000 presidential election, this system allows a person to be elected president who does not win the nationwide popular vote.
Emancipation Proclamation
Edict by Abraham Lincoln that went into effect on Jan 1, 1863, abolishing slavery in the Confederate states; proclamation did not affect the four slave states that were still part of the union (so as to not alienate them).
Embargo of 1807
Declaration by President Thomas Jefferson that banned all American trade with Europe. As a result of the war between England and Napoleon France, America's sea rights as a neutral power were threatened; Jefferson hoped the embargo would force England and France to respect American neutrality.
Emergency Quota Act
Also called the Johnson Act, this 1921 bill limited immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe by stating that in a year, total immigration from any country could only equal 3% of the number of immigrations from that country living in the united states.
Enlightenment
18th century European intellectual movement that attempted to discover the natural laws that governed science and society and taught that progress was inevitable in the Western world. Americans were greatly influenced by John Locke, who stated that government should exist for the benefit of the people living under it.
Enola Gay
The name of American bomber that on August 6, 1945, dropped the first atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima, thus initiating the nuclear age.
Era of Good Feelings
Term used by a newspaper of the period to describe the years between 1816 and 1823, when after the end of the War of 1812 the US remained generally free of foreign conflicts and when political strife at home was at a bare minimum (because of the collapse of the Federalist party)
Espionage Act
WW1 era regulation passed in 1917 that ordered severe penalties for citizens who criticized the war effort of the government; mandatory prison sentences were also proclaimed for those who interfered with the draft process. Nearly 700 Americans were arrested for violating this act.
Essex Junto
Group of Massachusetts Federalists who met to voice their displeasure with the policies of Thomas Jefferson during Jefferson's second term, and proposed that the New England states and New York secede from the Union.
Exodusters
Large number of Southern blacks who left the South and moved to Kansas for a "better life" after Reconstruction ended in 1877; many failed to find satisfaction in Kansas because og lack of opportunities and open hostility from Kansas residents.
Fair Deal
A series of domestic programs proposed to Congress by President Harry Truman that included a Fair Employment Practices Act, a call for government construction public housing, an extension of Social Security, and a proposal to ensure employment for all American workers.
Famer's Alliances
After the decline of Grange organizations, these became the major organizations of in 1880s; many experimented with cooperative buying and selling. Many local aliiances became involved in direct political activity with the growth of Populist Party in 1890s.
Feferal Deposit Insurance Corporation FDIC
Passed during the first hundred days of FDR, this body insured individual bank deposits up to $2500 and helped to restore confidence in America's banks.
Federal Reserve System
Established by Federal Reserve Act of 1913, this system established 12 district reserve banks to be controlled by the banks in each district; in addition, a Federal Reserve Board was established to regulate the entire structure. This act improved public confidence in the banking system.
Federal Trade Commisson
Authorized after the passage of the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914, it was established as the major government body in charge of regulating big business. The FTC investigated possible violations of antitrust laws.
Federalists
During the period when the Constitution was being ratified, these were the supporters of the larger national government as outlined in the Constitution; the party of Washington and John Adams, it was supported by commercial interests. Federalists were opposed to Jeffersonians, who favored a smaller federal government and a society dominated by agrarian values. Federalist influence in national politics ended with the presidential election of 1816.
Feminine Mystique
Betty Friedan's 1963 book that was the Bible of the Feminist movement of the 1960s and 1970s. Friedan maintained that the post ww2 emphasis on family forced women to think of themselves primarily as housewives and robbed them of much of their creative potential.
feminism
the belief that women should have the same rights and benefits in American society that men do. Feminism gained many supporters during the Progressive Era, and in the 1960s drew large numbers of supporters. The National Organization for Women (NOW) was established in 1966 by Betty Friedan and had nearly 200,000 members in 1969.
15th Amendment
Ratified in 1870, this amendment stated that a person could not be denied the right to vote because of the color of their skin or wherther or not they had been a slave. This extended the rights of blacks to vote to the North (which the Emancipation Proclamation had not done); some in the women's movement opposed the amendment on the grounds that it did nothing for the rights of women.
Final Solution
The plan of Hitler and Nazi Germany to eliminate Jewsih civilization from Europe; by the end of the war in 1945, nearly 6 million jews had been executed. The full extent of Germany's attrocities was not known in Europe and the US until near the end of the war.
Fireside Chats
Broadcasts on the radio by FDR addressed directly to thr American people that made may Americans feel that he personally cared about them; FDR did 16 of these in his first two terms. Many Americans in the 30s had pictures of Roosevelt in their living rooms; in addition, Roosevelt received more letters from ordinary Americanst than any other president did in American history.
First Great Awakening
A religious revival in the American colonies that lasted from the 1720s through the 1740s; speakers like Jonathan Edwards enraptured speakers with sermons such as "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God." Religous spliys in the colonies became deeper because of this movement.
Flapper
A "new woman" of the 1920s, who wore short skirts and bobbed hair and rejected many of the social regulations that controlled women of the previous generation.
Food ad Drug Act
1906 bill that created a federal Food and Drug Administration; exa,ple of consumer production legislation of the progressive ear, it was at least partially passed as a result of "The Jungle"
Force Act
1832 legislation that gace president Andrew Jackson the power to invade any state if that action was necessary to enforce federal law; bill was in response to nullification of federal tariff regulation by the legislature of SC.
Fordney-McCumber Tariff
1922 act that sharply increased tariffs on imported goods; most Reepublican leaders of the 1920s firmly believed in "protectionist" policies that would increase profits for American business.
Fort Sumter
Federal fort located in Charleston, SC, that was fired on by Confederate artillery on April 12, 1861; these were the first shots actually fired in the CW. A public outcry immediately followed across the Northern states, and the mobilization of a federal army began.
Fourteen Points
Woodrow Wilson's view of a post WW1 that he hoped the other Allied Powers would endorse during the negotiations for the Treat of Versailles; Wilson's vision included elimination of secret treaties, arms reduction, national self-determination, and the creation of a League of Nations. After negotiations, only the League of Nations remained (which the US never became a part of).
Fourteenth Amend
Ratified in 1868, this stated that "all persons born or naturalized in the US" were citizens. In addition, all former Confederate supporters were prohibited from holdnig office within the US.
Franciscans
Missionaries who established settlements in SW US in the late 1500s; at their missions Christian conversion was encouraged, but at the same time Native Americans were used as virtual slaves. Rebellions against the missions and the soldiers sent to protect them began in 1598.
Fredericksburg, Battle of
Battle on December 13, 1862, where the Union army commanded by General Ambrose Burnside suffered a major defeat at the hands of Confederate forces.
Free Speech Movement
Protests at UC Berkley in 1964 and 1965 that opposed the vontrl that the university, and "the establishment" in general, had over the lives of the university students. Protesters demanded changes in university regulations and also broader changes in American society.
Free Trade
The philosophy that trade barriers and protective tariffs inhibit long-term economic growth; this philosophy was the basis for the 1994 ratification by the US of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) which removed trade restrictions between the US, Mexico, and Canada.
Freedmen
Term used for freed blacks in the South after the Civil War. Freedmen enjoyed some gains in terms of education, the ability to hold office, and economic well being during the Reconstruction era, although many of these gains were wiped out after the Compromist of 1877.
Freedom Rides
Buses of black and white civil rights workers who in 1961 rode on interstate buses to the Deep South to see if Southern states were abiding by the 1960 Supreme Court ruling banning segregation on interstate buses and waitinh rooms and restaurants at bust stations. Buses met mob violence in numerous cities; federal marshals were finally called to protect the freedom riders.
Freeport Doctrine
Introduced by Stephen Douglass in the Lincoln-Douglass devates, the idea that despite the Dred Scott SC decision, a teritorry could still prevent slavery by electing officials who were opposed to it and by creating laws and regulations that would make slavery impossible to enforce.
Free Soil Party
Political party that won 10 percent of the vote in the 1848 presidential election; they were opposed to the spread of slavery into any of the recently acquired American territories. Free-Soil supporters were mainly former members of the Whig party in the North.
French and Indian War
Called the Seven Years War in European textbooks; in this war, the British and the French fought for the right to expandtheir empire in the Americas. Colonists and Native Americans fought on both sides, and the war eventually spread to Europe and elsewhere. The English emerged victorious, and in the end received all of French Canada.
Fugitive Slave Act
Part of the Compromise of 1850, this legislation set up special commissions in Northern states to determine if an accused runaway slave really was one; according to regulations, after the verdict, commissioners were given more money if the accused was found to be a runaway than if he or she was found not to be one. Some Norther legislatures passed laws attempting to circumvent the Fugitive Slave Act.
Gasden Purchase
Strip of territory runningthrough AZ and NM thatthe US purchased from Mexico in 1853; President Pierce authorized this purchase to secure that the southern route of the transcontinental railroad (between Texas and California) would be in American territory.
Geneva Accords
After the French were defeated in Vietnam, a series of agreements made in 1954 that temporarily divided Vietnam into two parts (along the 17th parallel) and promised nationwide elections within two years. To prevent communists from gaining control, the US installed a friendly government in South Vietnam and saw that the reunification elections never took place.
Gettysburg Address
Speech made by Lincoln at dedication ceremony for a cemetary for Union soldiers who died at the Battle of Gettysburg; in this November 19, 1863 speech, Lincoln stated that freedom should exist in the US for all men, and that "government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
Gettysburg, Battle of
The most important battle of the CW, this July 1863 victory by union forces prevented General Robert E Lee from invading the North. Defeat at Gettysburg, along with defeat at the Battle of Vicsburg during the same month, turned the tide of war firmly in the direction of Union forces.
Ghent, Treaty of
1814 treaty between GB and the US ending the War of 1812; treaty restored diplomatic relations between the two countries but did nothing to address the issues that had initially caused the war.
Ghost Dances
Religion practiced by Lakota tribesmen in response to repeated incursions by American settlers. Ghost dancers thought that a Native American messiah would come and banish the whites, return the buffalo, and give all former Native American land back to the Native Americans. Worried territorial officals had Sitting Bull arrested (he was later killed under uncertain circumstances) and killed another 240 Lakota at Wounded Knee Creek.
GI
Popular term for American servicemen during WW2; refers to the fact that virtually anything they wore or used was "government issued."
GI Bill
Officially called the Serviceman's Readjustment Act of 1944, this legislation gave many benefits to retuning WW2 veterans, including financial assistance for veterans wanting to go to college or enter other job training programs, special loan programs for veterans wanting to buy homes or businesses, and preferential treatment for veterans who wished to apply for government jobs.
Gilded Age, The
Some historians describe the late nineteenth century in this manner, describing it as an era with a surface of great prosperity hiding deep problems of social inequity and shallowness of culture. The term comes from the title of an 1873 Mark Twain novel.
Globalization
Belief that the US should work closely with other nations of the world to solve common problems; this was the foreign policy approach of President Clinton. Policies that supported this approach included the ratification of NAFTA, the US working more closely with the UN, and "nation building" abroad. Many policies of globalization were initially rejected by Clintion's successor, GWB.
Glorious Revolution
English revolution of 1688 to 1689 where King James 2 was removed from the throne and his Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband William began to rule. Reaction to this in the American colonies was varied: there was a revolt against appointed Catholic officials in NY and MD, and in Massachusetts the governor was sent back to England with the colonial demand that the dominion of New England be disbanded.
Gold Standard
Economic system that bases all currency on gold, meaning that all paper currency could be exchanged at a bank for gold. Business interests of the late nineteenth century supported this; William Jennings Bryan ran for president three times opposing the Gold Standard, and supported the free coinage of silver instead.
"Gospel of Wealth"
The philosophy of steel magnate Andrew Carnegie, who stated that wealthy industrialists had an obligation to create a "trust fund" from their profits to help their local communities. By the time of his death, Carnegie had given over 90% of his wealth to various foundations and philanthropic endeavors.
Grange
Initially formed in 1867, the rande was an association fo farmers that provided social activies and information about new farming techniques. Some local Grange organizations became involved in cooperative bying and selling.
Great Compromise
Plan drafted by Roger Sherman of Connecticuit that stated one house of the US Congress would be based on population (HR), while in the other house (S) all states would be represented equally. This compromise greatly speeded the ratification of the Consitution.
Great Migration
Migration of large numbers of American blacks to Midwestern adn Eastern industrial cities that began during WW1 and continued throughout the 1920s. Additional workers were needed in the North because of the war and during the 1920s because of immigration restrictions; balcks were willing to leave the South because of continued lynchings there and the fact that their economic situation was not improving.
Great Society
Aggressive program announced by LBJ in 1965 to attack the major social problems in America; Great Society programs included the War on Poverty, Medicate and Medicaid programs for elderly Americans, greater protection for and more legislation dealing with civil rights, and greater funding for education. Balancing the GS and the war in Nam would prove difficult for the Johnson administration.
Greenback Party
Political party of the 1870s and early 1880s that stated the government should put more money in circulation and supported an eight hour workday and femal suffrage. The party received support from farmers but never built a national base. The party argued into the late 1880s that more greenbacks should be put in ciruclation to help farmers who were in debt and who saw the price of their products decreasing annually.
"Greenbacks"
Paper money issued by the American government during and immediately after the CW that was not backed by gold or silver.
Gridlock
situation when the president is of one party while congress is controlled by the other, causing a situation where little legislation is actually passed. This is how some describe the situation with Clinton/Republican Congress after the 94 congressional elections.
Guadalcanal, Battle of
over this pacific island, lasted from Aug 1942 through Feb 43; American victory against fierce Japanese resistance was the first major offensive victory Americans in the Pacific War.
Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of
treaty ending the war with Mexico that was ratified by the Senate in March 1848 and or $15 million gave the US TX territory to the Rio Grande River, NM, and CA
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
1964 Congressional resolution that gave LBJ the authority to "take all necessary measures to repel" attacks against Amerixan military forces stationed in Nam. Later, critics would charge. this resolution allowed the pres to greatly expand the Vietnam War without congressional oversight.
Harlem Renaissance
Black literary and artistic movement centered in Harlem that lasted from the 1920s into the early 30s that both celebrated and lamented black life in America; Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston were two famous writers of this movement.
Hartford Convention
Meeting of New England Federalists in the closing months of the War o 1812 where they threatened the NE would secede from the US unless trade restrictions imposed by Pres Madison were lifted. American victory in the war made their protests seem pointless.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
In response to the intial effects of the Great Depression, Congress authorized this tariff in 1930; this established tariff rates on imported goods at the highest level of any point in US history. Some American companies benefited in the short term, although the effect on world trade was disastrous, as many other countries erected tariff barriers on American imports.
Haymarket Square
Location in Chicago of labor rally called by anarchist and other radical labor leaders on May 2, 1996. A bomb was hurled toward police officials, and police opened fire on the demonstrators; numerous policement and demonstrators were killed and wounded. Response in the nation's press was decidedly anti-union.
Head Start
One of Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty programs that gave substantial funding for a nursery school program to prepare children of poor parents for Kindergarten.
Heavy Industry
The production of steel, iron, and other materials that can be used for building purposes; great increase in heavy industry fueled the massive industrial growth that took place in the last half of the 19th century.
Hessians
German troops who fought in the Revolutionary War on the side of Great Britain; Hessian troops were almost all paid mercenaries.
Historiography
The study of History and how it is written. Students of this would analyze various historical interpretations and the viewpoints of historians. This field is not as concerned with historical events themselves as it is with how these events are interpreted.
Holding Company
A company that existed to gain monopoly controls over an industry by buying large number of shares of stock in as many companies as possible in that industry. The best example in American history was John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil corporation.
Holocaust
Historical term used for the extermination of 6 million Jewish victims by Nazi Germany during WW2. Much has been written on the reasons for the Holocaust and why it occurred in Germany.
Homestead Act
1862 enactment by Congress that gave 160 acres of publicly owned land to a farmer who lived and farmed on it for two years. The provisions of the bill inspired hundreds of thousands of Americans to move westward in the years after the CW.
Hoovervilles
Groups of crude houses made of cardboard and spare wood that sprad up on the fringes of many American cities during the first years of the Great Depression. These shacks were occupied by unemploted workers; the name of these communities demonstrated the feeling that President Hoover should have been doing more to help the downtrodden in America.
Horizontal Integration
The strategy of gaining as much control over an entire single industry as possible, usually by creating trusts and holding companies. The most successful example of Horizontal Integration was John D Rockerfeller and Standard Oil, who had at one point controlled over 92 percent of the oil production in the US.
HUAC (House Un-American Activites Committee)
Committe of the HR that beginning in 1947 investigated possible communist infiltration of the entertainment industry and, more importantly, of the government. Most famous investigations of the committe were the investigations of the "Hollywood 10" and the investigation of Alger Hiss, a former high-ranking member of the State Dept.
Huguenots
Protestants in France, who by the 1630s were believers in Calvinism. Few Huguenots ended up settling in the Americas, as French officials feared they would disrupt the unity of colonial settlements.
Hull House
Established by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr in Chicago 1889, this was the first settlement house in America. Services such as reading groups, social clubs, an employment bureau, and a "day care center" for working mothers could be found at Hull House. The Hull House model was later copied in many other urban centers.
"Hun"
Term used in allied propaganda during WW1 to depict the German soldier; Germans were portrayed as bloodthirsty beasts. WW1 was the first war where propaganda was used on a widespread scale.
Hundred Days
The period from March through June of 1933; the first 100 days of the ND presidency of FDR. During this period programs were implemented to assist farmers, banks, unemployed workers, and businessmen; in addition, prohibition was repealed.
Hunter-Gatherers
Early civilizations that existed not by farming but by moving from region to region and taking what was necessary at the time from the land; some early Native American tribes in northern New England lived as hunter gatherers.
Hydrogen Bomb
Atomic weapons much more powerful than those used at Hiroshima and Nagasaki; these were developed and repeatedly tested by both the US and the Soviet Union in the 1950s, increasing dramatically the potential dangers of nuclear war.
Impeachment
The process of removing an elected public official from office; during the Progressive Era several states adopted measures making it easier to do this. Presidents Andrew Johnson and William Jefferson Clinton were both impeached by the HR, but neither was convicted by the US Senate (the procedure outlined in the Constitution).
Impressment
British practice of forcing civillians and ex-sailors back into naval service; Napoleon and the British seized nearly 7500 sailors from American ships, including some that had actually become American citizens. This practice caused increased tensions between the US and GB and was on of the causes of the War of 1812.
Inca Empire
Advanced and wealthy civilization centered in the Andes mountain region; aided by smallpox, Francisco Pizarro conquered them in 1533.
Indentured Servants
Legal arrangement when an individual owed compulsory service (in some cases 3 years, in others up to 10) for free passage to the American colonies. Many of the early Virginia settlers came as indentured servants.