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physiological changes for aging adults
Terms in this set (40)
This contributes to skin aging: decreased intake of protein, calories, and vitamins
This contributes to dry skin
atrophy of sweat glands
is the loss of hair decreased density of hair follicles
a type of cancer that is screened for by looking at asymmetry, border, color, or diameter.
Cancer that looks like fish scales
squamous cell carcinoma
These are less effective because of decline in immunity and formation of antibodies, less forceful cough, mucous membrane are drier.
respiratory defense mechanisms
These predispose or put elderly at greatest risk for respiratory changes
smoking, obesity, and chronic illness
This is the outward curvature of the spine causing a barrel shaped chest and use of accessory muscles to breathe.
There is more gradual response to changes in blood for these two levels during aging.
O2 and CO2
Decrease in elastic recoil of the lung, decrease in chest wall compliance, stiffening of chest wall.
structural alterations in aging
Responds more slowly to multiple stimuli increasing risk for falls and injury.
central nervous system
Difficulty with balance, coordination, fine movements, and spatial orientation increasing risk for falls.
Found in elderly because of decreased neurotransmitters.
This increases processing time in the aging adult.
decreased brain size
Aging patients may be found dressed inappropriately because this is less efficient.
Facial features become more pronounced from loss of this.
subcutaneous fat and skin elasticity
Nursing Interventions include use of brighter colors to compensate for this decline.
This decline can happen from many factors such as noise exposure, vascular or systemic diseases, poor nutrition, ototoxic drugs, and pollution.
The nurse speaks in a different tone because this is lost.
high frequency sound
Taste perception declines, salivation is decreased, and increased loss of appetite due to this.
This is the most common cancer in men over 50.
This does not change in the aging adult reproductive health.
Diminished ROM and mobility is due to this.
This predisposes older adults to heart failure, stroke, renal failure, coronary heart disease, and peripheral vascular disease.
Loss of taste is due to the loss of this.
integumentary (common changes with aging)
Loss of skin elasticity with fat loss in extremities, pigmentation changes, glandular atrophy (oil, moisture, sweat glands), thinning hair, with hair turning gray-white (facial hair: decreased in men, increased in women), slower nail growth, atrophy of epidermal arterioles
respiratory (common changes with aging)
decreased cough reflex; decreased cilia; increased anterior-posterior chest diameter; inceased chest wall rigidity; fewer alveoli, increased airway resistance; increased risk of respiratory infections
cardiovascular (common changes with aging)
thickening of blood vessel walls; narrowing of vessel lumen; loss of vessel elasticity; lower cardiac output; decreased number of heart muscle fibers; decreased elasticity and calcification of heart valves; decrease baroreceptor sensitivity; decreased efficiency of venous valves, increased pulmonary vascular tension; increased systolic blood pressure; decreased peripheral circulation
gastrointestinal (common changes with aging)
Periodontal disease; decrease in saliva, gastric secretions, and pancreatic enzymes; smooth muscle changes with decrease esophageal peristalsis and small intestinal motility; gastric atrophy, decreased production of intrinsic factor, increased stomach pH, loss of smooth muscle in the stomach, hemorrhoids, and fissures; rectal prolapse and impaired rectal sensation
musculoskeletal (common changes with aging)
decreased muscle mass and strength, decalcification of bones, degenerative joint changes, dehydration of intervertebral disks
Neurological (common changes with aging)
degeneration of nerve cells, decrease in neurotransmitters, decrease in rate of conduction of impulses
eyes (common changes with aging)
decreased accommodation to near/far vision (presbyopia), difficulty adjusting to changes from light to dark, yellowing of the lens, altered color perception, increased sensitivity to glare, smaller pupils
ears (common changes with aging)
loss of acuity for high frequency tones (presbycusis), thickening of tympanic membrane, sclerosis of inner ear, buildup of earwax (cerumen)
taste (common changes with aging)
often diminished; often fewer taste buds
smell (common changes with aging)
touch (common changes with aging)
decreased skin receptors
proprioception (common changes with aging)
decreased awareness of body positioning in space
genitourinary (common changes with aging)
fewer nephrons, 50% decrease in renal blood flow by age 80, decreased bladder capacity
female-reduced sphincter tone
reproductive (common changes with aging)
male-sperm count diminishes, smaller testes, erections less firm and slow to develop
female-decreased estrogen production, degeneration of ovaries, atrophy of vagina, uterus, breasts
endocrine (common changes with aging)
general-alterations in hormone production with decreased ability to respond to stress
cortisol, glucocorticoids-increased anti-inflammatory hormone
pancreas-increased fibrosis, decreased secretion of enzymes and hormones
immune system-thymus involution & T-cell function decrease
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